https://www.theoccidentalobserver.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/TOO-Full-Logo-660x156-1.png 0 0 Lipton Matthews https://www.theoccidentalobserver.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/TOO-Full-Logo-660x156-1.png Lipton Matthews2021-09-30 07:31:312021-10-04 12:06:23Lipton Matthews Interviews Richard Lynn
Richard Lynn is a distinguished academic and prolific researcher whose interests span a fascinating array of topics. Professor Lynn is a pioneer in the field of intelligence research and is well regarded for his numerous books documenting the association between intelligence and social outcomes.
1.Professor Lynn, you have written extensively on the predictive power of IQ, so could you explain why intelligence is such an important predictor of success?
Intelligent people learn faster and more effectively, and can solve problems that unintelligent people are unable to solve.
2. Contemporary economists infrequently examine the role of IQ in explaining disparities across countries, but you denounce this stance. Can you explain the mechanisms by which intelligence affects development?
Intelligent people are able to create more efficient institutions including government and industry.
3. Disparities in development between Northern and Southern Italy are usually ascribed to environmental factors, but should we assign a role to IQ?
There is about a 10-point IQ difference between North and South Italy which cannot be explained by environmental factors. The issue is examined in my paper “IQs in Italy are higher in the North: A reply to Felice and Giugliano.” These critics have contended that school quality could be responsible for the North-South differences. The first problem with this is that it does not account for the effect of intelligence in creating better schools. Secondly, the lower IQs in the south are attributable to the admixture of North African and Middle Eastern ancestry shown by the frequency of the haplogroup E1b1b.
4. James Flynn observed that throughout the twentieth century, IQ scores increased, but is the Flynn effect measuring g or specific cognitive skills that are environmentally determined?
Flynn attributed the secular increase in intelligence to a number of factors including improved nutrition, better schooling and a more stimulating environment. But many contend that these are a consequence of adaptations to changes in the cultural environment. Michael Woodley of Menie has shown that the Flynn effect is weakly related to g.
5. Researchers are documenting a reversal of the Flynn Effect. What is the cause of this occurrence?
My own research has shown that the decline in genotypic intelligence is caused by the negative association between intelligence and fertility, since highly intelligent people have fewer children. This subject is covered in my 2004 paper “New evidence of dysgenic fertility for intelligence in the United States.” In a more recent study “The Negative Flynn Effect: A Systematic Review,” co-written with Edward Dutton and Dimitri Van der Linder we list immigration and dysgenic fertility as explanations for the reversal.
Ole Rogeburd and his co-authors argue: “Our results remain consistent with a number of proposed hypotheses of IQ decline: changes in educational exposure or quality, changing media exposure, worsening nutrition, and social spillovers from increased immigration.” For this assertion to be sound the authors must provide evidence that schooling and nutrition are getting worse.
6. Sex differences in intelligence are observable and you argue that they become demonstrable during adolescence. Why is this the case?
In the evolutionary past men were responsible for hunting and warfare and this would have selected for greater intelligence and spatial abilities. In addition, intelligent men would have been more successful in competing for women. The sex difference in intelligence appears at the age of 16 years because the development of girls ceases at this age, whereas it continues for boys. Becker and Rindermann (2017) have confirmed that sex differences in intelligence appear during later adolescence.
7. Intelligence is unequally distributed across societies; therefore, could you provide an evolutionary account for the unequal distribution of intelligence.
The intelligence of societies increases in colder environments as an adaptation to the greater cognitive demands. I have called this the Cold Winters Theory. Peoples in cold environments needed a greater variety of complex tools than peoples in tropical and sub-tropical environments. Torrance (1983) has documented a link between latitude and the number and complexity of tools used by contemporary hunter-gatherers. He has shown that hunter-gatherers in tropical and subtropical latitudes like the Amazon Basin and New Guinea typically have been 10 and 20 different tools, while those in the colder northern latitudes of Siberia, Alaska and Greenland have been 25 and 60 different tools. The studies of Donald Templer, Satoshi Kanazawa, Bryan Pesta and Joseph Ryan have confirmed the link between cold climates and intelligence.
8. Some invoke the average intelligence of people living in the Arctic as a refutation of the Cold Winters Theory. Are they misinterpreting the theory?
This is explained in my book Race Differences in Intelligence: An Evolutionary Analysis (2015). The explanation lies in the small numbers of the Arctic Peoples whose population at the end of the twentieth century was only approximately 56,000 as compared with approximately 1.4 billion North East Asians. While it is impossible to make precise estimates of population sizes during the main Würm glaciation, there can be no doubt that the North East Asians were many times more numerous than the Arctic Peoples. The effect of the difference in population size will have been that mutations for higher intelligence occurred and spread in the North East Asians that never appeared in the Arctic Peoples. The North East Asians consisting of the Chinese, Koreans and Japanese would have formed a single extended breeding population of demes in which mutant alleles for high intelligence would have spread but would not have been transmitted to the Arctic peoples isolated by high mountain ranges and long distance. The Arctic peoples did, however, evolve a large brain size, approximately the same as that of the North East Asians, so it is curious that they do not have the same intelligence. A possible explanation for this is that the Arctic peoples have evolved a strong visual memory that would have been needed when they went out on long hunting expeditions and needed to remember landmarks in order to get home in largely featureless environments of snow and ice. An increase of this ability would have required an increase in brain size but is not measured in intelligence tests. A further possibility is that one or more new mutant alleles for more efficient neurophysiological processes underlying intelligence may have appeared in the North East Asians but not in the Arctic Peoples.
9. Although it is one of the most replicated findings in psychological research, many still doubt the validity of the Black-White IQ gap. Could you shed light on its genetic component?
Based on numerous sources which I discuss in Race Differences in Intelligence, Blacks consistently obtain lower IQs than Whites. This gap is present even when compared to Whites of a similar socio-economic status and in all countries. Furthermore, the study by Sandra Scarr [see S. Scarr, R. Weinberg, 1976; R. Weinberg, S. Scarr & I. D. Waldman, 1992; summarized by Lynn, 1994], showed that Black infants adopted by middle class whites do not gain an IQ advantage, showing that genetics must be responsible for the lower black IQ.
10. Exploring racial differences in personality traits like psychopathy and self-control is the next frontier in psychological research. How do you suggest researchers articulate their findings to a mainstream audience?
By publishing their findings. These will no doubt be ignored by mainstream media but eventually, the facts will be accepted.