The 10-story Kinkabool tower at 34 Hanlan Street in Gold Coast
From South Coast to Miami Beach.
Further afield from Sydney and Melbourne where the majority of Jews reside, Jewish property developers are also notable on the Gold Coast, performing a now familiar role. It was here that property developers Stanley Korman (encountered previously in Melbourne) and Eddie Kornhauser made a name for themselves, not just as pioneers of high-rise living, but of the Gold Coast as a city itself. Once little more than a beachside town in an area called South Coast, these early investments laid the groundwork for the 1980s tourist boom, when the city became awash with Japanese money and holiday travelers, and the skyline grew ever taller with a sheer wall of apartment towers now settled along the beachfront. It was Stanley Korman, the “father of the Gold Coast,” who was among the first to see the potential of the area, developing the 10-story Kinkabool tower at 34 Hanlan Street in 1960, the first apartment tower on the Gold Coast, which at the time towered above mere beachside shacks. Korman, inspired by a holiday in the USA, began his pioneering beachside venture in the late 1950s with an American-style holiday resort (the Chevron Hotel) as well as the Chevron and Paradise Islands housing precincts, leading the way in establishing Surfers Paradise as a popular holiday destination:
He [Korman] was soon generating much of the impetus for the phenomenal development of the locality from ‘just another tourist resort’ to an internationally recognised location.
Born in Poland, the Korman brothers Stanley and Paul arrived in Australia in 1932 and set up a hosiery business, migrating into property development after the war; they transferred their focus to the Gold Coast after developing Stanhill and other American-style hotels in Melbourne. Stanley Korman’s brash style and sprawling network of companies would ultimately attract the attention of the government, and he was charged and sentenced to six months prison for issuing a false shareholder prospectus, later leaving Australia for the USA in 1967.
Arriving somewhat later on the scene was another prominent Jewish developer on the Gold Coast, Eddie Kornhauser. Also born in Poland and fleeing to Melbourne in 1939, Kornhauser purchased the historic Surfers Paradise hotel from Korman with an aim to cater to the growing number of Jewish holidaymakers from Melbourne and Sydney. In 1975, under the vehicle of HSP Developments, he developed the site into two early apartment towers, Allungah and Ballah, and built the Paradise Centre shopping mall, now the urban focal point of Surfers Paradise. Kornhauser persisted with Gold Coast high-rise apartments until the early 2000s, the 40-story Pivotal Point tower at 50 Marine Parade in Southport a final contribution. Disrepute also followed Kornhauser, who was implicated in the scandals of the Bjelke-Petersen Government. He was charged and later acquitted on three counts of corruption charges relating to bribery, and he remained a close friend with Abe Saffron from his time developing hotels in Sydney. Kornhauser donated to Yesihva schools throughout his life, established the Bob Hawke Forest in Israel (named for his friend the former Prime Minister) and Israel’s Haifa University made him an honorary Doctor of Philosophy and Governor of the University.
Other developers surveyed elsewhere, notably Meriton and Dainford Holdings, also made their mark on the Gold Coast at a later date. However deeper Jewish influences on development are found far beyond Australia’s borders. To architect Robin Boyd, the Gold Coast amounted to the best example of “Austericanism,” a term he coined to critique the then nascent propensity for Australians to imitate American ideas. Boyd infamously labelled the Gold Coast the capital of this new “Austerica” in his book The Australian Ugliness (1960), describing it as the “fibro-cement paradise under a rainbow of plastic paint.” Similar to Boyd’s analysis of the “American influence” of Hollywood on the Australian mind, this Austericanism on the Gold Coast turns out to be rather more Jewish than Boyd would let his readers know.
Much of the inspiration for the development for the Gold Coast as a gaudy beachside resort, in the tower-by-the-beach style of development that defines the city (also evident to a lesser degree on the waterfront streets of St Kilda in Melbourne), was in fact Miami Beach in Florida. Both Stanley Korman and Bruce Small visited Miami Beach during the 1950s and were impressed by the scale of development in the hotel and resort precinct. Seizing the chance to replicate this in Australia, Korman and Small soon capitalized with the pioneering Edgewater and Kinkabool towers respectively. Beachside suburbs of the Gold Coast like Palm Beach and Miami bear this Florida heritage, and while it is unclear if he visited the area, the influence of Miami Beach on Nathan Beller is also likely. His 10-story block at 189 Beaconsfield Parade was given the name Miami Towers, and the St Kilda City Council of the 1970s hoped the beachside boulevard could replicate the success of the Gold Coast. The strong Jewish presence in property development in Miami Beach, an area with 15 Jewish Mayors to date, is underscored by the Greater Miami Jewish Federation, who state that:
The skyline of Miami Beach has changed from the day the first skyscraper went up in 1940. It continues to change, as some buildings come down and new higher ones go up. Jews have been involved in every aspect of these developments, as architects, developers, and contractors. Through their contributions to the physical appearance of Miami Beach, their roles in building the Beach are apparent and perpetual.
Described as the “gayest, richest Jewish city in the world” by the early 1950s, Miami Beach has long since been immensely popular with Jewish tourists and retirees from the northern states of the USA. American Jews such as Asher Grossinger, Morris Lapidus, Samuel Jacobs, and Stephen Muss heavily contributed to this post-war development of Miami Beach as a Jewish resort, and the example they set to Korman, Beller and Small reflects yet another degree of Jewish influence on the emergent high-rise property scene in Australia.
The Krantz Legacy.
On the other side of the country, Jews also played an influential role in early flat and apartment development in the city of Perth, Western Australia. Born in Perth to Russian-Jewish parents, architect Abraham Harold Krantz began designing and promoting flats in the 1930s, with his contribution to the city now earning him a legacy as an architect who “almost singlehandedly created the apartment industry in the western capital.” A relative of Isaac Steinberg, promoter of the Kimberley Scheme (a settlement program for Jewish refugees in northwest Australia in the 1930s), Krantz’s firm Krantz & Sheldon is alleged to have been responsible for the design and construction of over 90 percent of flats in Perth between the years 1930 and 1960 and again largely supplanted the existing architectural style of Perth’s early flats with modernism. His partner in the firm, Robert Sheldon (born Schlaefrig), was another Jewish refugee from Austria. The Lawson Flats at 2 Sherwood Court were the tallest archetype of the early style of flats built in Perth. Developed in 1937, the building was built in the Spanish Mission style, and the flats were, like counterparts in NSW and Victoria, occupied by Perth’s elite.
Krantz’s success with smaller flat developments in the 1930s led to offers of investment and he soon had a budding reputation as Perth’s know-how man for flats, and set up investor syndicates for his growing clientele that made larger developments financially viable. Krantz and Sheldon were also responsible for most of the taller high-rise towers built immediately after strata title reform in Western Australia—the Strata Title Act 1966—with a string of towers in South Perth. The tallest, the 21-story Windsor Towers—a local behemoth when completed in 1968—evokes the arrogant positioning of Seidler’s Blues Point Tower in Sydney and once dominated views of the Swan River.
An opponent of suburbia, arguably Krantz’s most controversial projects were the Wandana Flats designed for the State Housing Commission. They were not only the first public high-rise flats in Western Australia and predictably aroused mass anger from local residents, but built in 1956, they pioneered the International Style in Australia. In an article for The Western Mail in 1937 entitled “MODERN FLAT DEVELOPMENTS. An Architect Explains His Work,” Krantz defended the flat typology against criticisms of iniquity, depravity and of being destructive of home life, arguing that “it provides a home in the true sense of the word” and was necessary due to affordability crises and changing lifestyle patterns. Krantz’s son David was also employed at the firm and designed the 16-story Mt Eliza Apartments at 71 Mount Street (built in 1964), at the time Perth’s tallest residential building, and arguably the first true high-rise apartment tower in the city.
“In moving to a flat rather than a house, however, … European Jewish families were subtly subverting Australian norms. Rather than conforming to the social and cultural values of the host population, they were in fact helping to transform them.”
The role of the Jewish migrant community, as a vanguard element in leading the mass uptake of flat and apartment living by taking advantage of new property title laws around the country, is crucial in comprehending the changes that came about in Australia’s urban form in the post-war era. Looking for opportunities for financial success in a new society and hostile to the existing political and cultural norms of Australians, preferring instead to replicate the apartment style living of the lives they fled in Europe, Jews ultimately led the process of re-shaping the fabric of Australian cities and breaking down one of the most deeply held norms of their new host society. This essay has focused on the role of Jewish architects and developers, but their role as residents in the flat trend is also worth broaching, for without the choice being made to pursue flat living over suburban housing, much of the demand for flats—and thus the impetus for developers to build and architects to design—would never have materialised. Emphasising the Jewish and broader migrant role, O’Hanlon contends that
were it not for the arrival of these people it is highly unlikely that flats and flat living, which in many quarters were considered alien to the Australian urban experience, would have become a significant component of city life here.
Fleeing from the cities of Central and Eastern Europe, flats and multi-family buildings were familiar and detached houses were foreign, and as noted by O’Hanlon, the clustering of post-war flats and early high-rise towers in areas of Sydney and Melbourne with high Jewish populations is simply not a coincidence. The popularity of flats as a housing choice within this new Jewish community is evident in the pages of the Australian Jewish Times during the era, where advisements for purchasing or renting flats are noticeably common. Robin Boyd, although misidentifying the Ostjuden culprits as “Central Europeans,” diagnosed the anti-assimilationism at the heart of these flat developments:
Many New Australians, especially those from central Europe, are used to high-density city living, and prefer and seek it here. … The more successful European migrant … created a demand for flat buildings near the city. … Thus cheap walk-up blocks of eavesless flats, made of yellow or orange bricks, according to region, were built in great quantity in areas which tolerate them such as St Kilda. … In block after block they replaced all the old single houses and the trees and created another separate zone of their own, isolated and insulated from the old Australian suburbia.
Sheltered within the flat, with friends and relatives occupying multiple dwellings within the building, Jews designed and developed the perfect mechanism to recoup from their European wartime experiences. In many ways flats operated as a defensive bulwark against the assimilationist mechanism of the suburb, shielding the Jewish community from the potential of losing communal identity and “Jewishness” in the gentile individualism of detached suburban housing. From these experiences would also grow the desire to promote pluralism and multiculturalism, to politically outlaw the assimilation they feared would occur outside the safety of the flat. This was foreshadowed by the successor of flat developer Nathan Beller as president of the Victorian Jewish Board of Deputies, a man by the name of Walter Lippmann.
Looking abroad to America, a country that also experienced a significant intake of European Jewish migrants, though at an earlier date than Australia, we find a similar phenomenon to that uncovered so far in Australia. Lasner’s book High Life—Condo Living in the Suburban Century (2012) explores the history of multi-family buildings in the USA. The American “co-op” or co-operative is roughly equivalent to the Australian flat in the era of company title and the “condo” or condominium to the later strata-titled flats. Lasner regularly identifies a Jewish character to the changing demographics involved in the growing proportion of co-op and condo residents (in particular in New York, Los Angeles, and Miami Beach), and Jewish names are common throughout his vignettes of early and landmark developments that bucked existing housing norms, or in the prominent figures and activists involved with the alternatives to detached dwellings. The shifts in attitude towards multi-family housing evident in Sydney and Melbourne occurred to a similar degree in New York City, where Jews were at a vanguard of new housing tenures that diverged from the existing private and individualistic style of co-ops primarily sought and developed by rich WASPs. Lasner further notes that, in the post-war co-ops, as a counter trend from the push towards suburbanization, “In New York, at least, most of the homeowners were Jewish and most were quite liberal.” Some of these post-war co-ops are also significant for their progressive views on race in housing, supporting racial integration within their developments at a time when racial exclusion in housing, though technically illegal, was still socially and cultural enforced elsewhere. Lasner cites the example of a majority Jewish co-op literally applauding the first Black families to arrive at their complex in 1948.
Through all this, Lasner emphasises demand over other structural changes as the driving component of the growth of co-ops and condos in the USA during the suburban century. “Changing demographics” he writes, was “one of the leading reasons for the condo counter trend…the condo emerged because it appealed to different, in some ways paradoxical, aspects of the human experience” and “finding community was an important by-product of, and often an impetus to, co-ownership [ownership of a unit in a multi-family building].” Other than Jewish or other migrant demand, demand for flats in Australia was also supplemented by the changing demographics that resulted from the breakdown of the traditional family structure. The era of the flat boom coincided with lowering marriage rates, rising divorce rates, increasing female economic independence, a declining fertility rate from an increased number of childless individuals and an overall shift to a more “cosmopolitan” way of life.
In searching for the source behind the rise of these non-traditional choices and lifestyles, one can make the case that many of the causal factors are ultimately grounded in and resulting from changes that can be drawn back to Jewish social and political activism in Feminism and the Sexual Revolution, and their precedents in Freudianism and the Frankfurt School. Similarly, much of the modern demand for high-rise living, which comes primarily from Asian migrants, would simply not exist had not the White Australia Policy been abandoned and multiculturalism been enshrined, both acts being steeped in Jewish activism in Australia and broader Jewish ideological trends from abroad, as outlined by Brenton Sanderson. Regardless of the degree of the Jewish role in the deeper demographic and political currents in the West that spurred the mass introduction of the flat and the apartment into Australian cities, it was nevertheless Jews that took up the vanguard role in bringing these changes to fruition.
The Jewish Vanguard.
Moving on from residents, the overrepresentation of Jewish developers and architects explored in this essay leads to the inevitable question of how and why it was that such a tiny minority came to exercise such an enormous role. Jews have gone far beyond what would be expected of their involvement in the property development industry based on a simple statistical percentage of the Jewish community. They are enormously overrepresented even when compared to other migrant groups such as the Italians and Greeks, who would also prosper in the flat and high-rise property industry at a later date and had a similar sense of cultural chauvinism and a hostility to assimilation that is endemic amongst Jews. Jews account for 7 of the 23 Inductees into the Australian Property Hall of Fame, distinguished primarily by their high-rise property credentials (or shopping centers). Brothers Bruno and Rino Grollo of Grocon are the only Italians inducted into the list, their representation of eight percent is thus roughly in line with the 4.3 percent of people in Australia with Italian ancestry, compared with the 30 percent representation of a group that makes up scarcely 0.1 percent of Australia’s population.
The answer to this question offered by Jewish scholars is predictably uncritical and myopic, attributing this Jewish success in property development and their over-representation exclusively to such factors as hard work, imagination, and “collaboration” (better identified as ethnic networking). While these undoubtedly contributed, these suggestions miss the most crucial factor that the high-rise apartment industry was quite simply ripe for the taking; it was a new industry with nothing in the way of institutional barriers erected to prevent their entry. Jews entered into a disreputable market segment that was avoided by the majority of local entrepreneurs, landowners and property developers of the time, who saw the typology as subversive, foreign and unpopular for most White Australians and contrary to their ideals; they shunned capitalizing even on the evident migrant demand. This argument is borne out by the fact that the Jewish property developers surveyed in this essay can be directly contrasted with native property development powerhouses of the post-war era such as Albert Victor “AV” Jennings. Considered a champion of the Australian Dream, AV Jennings’ property empire focused on developing detached suburban housing on the rapidly expanding urban fringes, playing little to no role in the flat and high-rise apartment industry. Where smaller gentile developers during the post-war era are identified, their endeavors are consistently characterized as one-off projects, likely resulting from surplus land being offloaded, that did not lead to further developments or a long-term involvement in the industry. Other large Australian property corporations from the era almost exclusively funded and developed commercial buildings instead, and the same circumstance of a strong Jewish and weak native presence among the architects of flats and early apartment towers has also been explored, attributable to much of the same aversion.
This new generation of Jewish migrants, by way of their chauvinism, post-holocaust insecurity and ethnic insularity, cared little for assimilating and fitting in with Australian cultural mores, and saw no reason to continue the suppression of flats in Australian cities if it offered them financial return, cultural protection, or a familiar living style. In turn, they were seemingly unconcerned by local opposition or outright supportive of the socially and culturally subversive nature of their endeavors. Local opposition to flats and apartment living was, according to academics like O’Hanlon, equivalent to proto-fascism and “at best xenophobic, at worst anti-Semitic.” This opinion is likely to have been shared by Jews at the time, potentially seeing their early involvement in flat and high-rise development as an opportunity to, quite literally, build a more tolerant and less homogenous Australia and thus counter the xenophobic prejudices they believed to be ingrained in the opposition to flats. That gentile developers involved in the flat and high-rise industry during and after the boom years of the 1960s were also overwhelmingly recent migrants, of non-British and non-European background, reflecting a similar unfamiliarity or hostility to Australian culture, as well as a tendency to resist assimilation, further solidifies this apparent local avoidance of high-rise development. Jewish overrepresentation in flat and apartment development and the promotion of high-rise living thus speaks far more to an aversion to the typology by White Australia than Jewish success in outcompeting gentiles.
State governments, forced to provide quick and financially viable housing solutions for the poor, were the only proponents drawn from traditional Australian society involved in the high-rise dwelling typology in any significant way during this period, building the large housing commission towers, some up to 40 stories, that now pockmark the suburbs of Australian cities. Lacking the wartime destruction of cities that made large plots of land easy for the governments of Europe to acquire, flats held the advantage of economy and space over detached dwellings, but even then only a fifth of the total output of the Housing Commission in NSW was for flats. The scale of these housing projects reached their peak in the late 1960s, driven by a housing crisis, but the fad of housing the poor in towering Le Corbusier-style blocks disappeared almost as quickly as it arrived, forced out by community protest, and now universally considered by governments to be bad policy that only intensified crime, social dislocation and delinquency.
In the absence of a Jewish vanguard driving the flat and apartment living typology to a critical mass, high-rise living may well have arrived on the scene only much later, and on a scale and form far more sympathetic to Australian cultural mores. The cities of Brisbane and Perth, both larger than the Gold Coast, saw only a muted high-rise apartment trend in the 1960s and 1970s compared to the rapid growth elsewhere, and up until recently their central business districts remained almost entirely comprised of office towers. The lack of a significant Jewish element to catalyse a high-rise tower boom in Brisbane, a city that possessed only a minuscule Jewish population, cannot be gainsaid as one of the causes for the different path in urban form the city took until Jews finally arrived on the scene. Few apartment towers showed up after early novelty specimens like Torbrek and Glenfalloch, the latter developed by Stanley Korman. Apartment towers taller than Torbreck (built in 1960) only began to emerge by the 1990s when opposition had withered away and apartment living was becoming a property norm. Soon thereafter Harry Triguboff devoured the city skyline in the late 2000s, as Meriton towers became Brisbane’s tallest buildings. In Perth, the Krantz group’s high-rise role was a relatively solitary one, and Adelaide, another city with a tiny Jewish population, remained almost devoid of residential towers until the explosion of development in the years of what may be identified as the “Asian Property Boom.”
The Asian Property Boom
Once the stigma and resistance to flats and high-rise living had been all but broken down by Jews, the floodgates opened in this new boom period from 2010 to 2019 that corresponded with the highest ever annual migrant intakes in Australian history. More migrants and real-estate investment from Asia flowed into the Australian property market than ever before and ever taller apartment towers arose in all of Australia’s capital cities. Hidden behind these events, ostensibly the work of Asian capital, one discovers the final piece in the puzzle: a financial industry of non-bank lenders dominated by Jews, dedicated to providing funds for apartment developments via loans for land and construction facilities.
Most prominently among these capital flows is Brae Sokolski and Wayne Lasky’s MaxCap group, Australia’s largest real-estate lender, which backed many of the tallest apartment buildings developed since 2010. Other major Jewish lenders to the property industry include the Schwartz family’s investment bank Qualitas; Wingate Group, founded by Farrel Meltzer in 2004, with a clique of prominent Jewish families involved; Monark Property Partners, based in Melbourne and co-founded by Michael Kark and Adam Slade-Jacobsen; and CVS Lane Capital Partners based in Sydney, a venture of the Liberman family. Smaller players such as Adrian Redlich’s Merricks Capital and Joseph Gersh’s Gersh Finance Fund also have apartment towers to their name, and Jews are present in the leading roles of Australia’s traditional banking institutions, namely Ian Narev (Narewczewitz), the former CEO of Australia’s largest bank, the Commonwealth Bank, whose stewardship from 2011 to 2019 paralleled the Asian Property Boom.
Whither White Australia?
The culmination of this revolution in urban form has had dire consequences for the Australian people. The apartment development industry is now entrenched as a pivotal player in the destruction of White Australia through demographic replacement, via the largest per-capita migrant intake program in the West prior to COVID-19. Far from simply providing investment sources for foreigners and homes for the influx of non-White migrants, who are overwhelmingly the developers, purchasers and occupants of these apartments, the strong GDP growth as well as the associated jobs and tax revenue created by the industry have become a major justification for keeping Australia’s extraordinarily high immigration rate going, valuable in papering over economic deficiencies since de-industrialization and the fall in native-born birth rates below replacement levels. Around 20 and 12 percent of people in Sydney and Melbourne respectively now live as part of a flat building or within apartments, a percentage expected to continue rising with further planned mass immigration and an unwillingness to allow urban sprawl. Current government reports project Australia is set to add 13.1 million people over the next 40 years, the equivalent of adding the population of Melbourne, Sydney, and Brisbane to the country—a figure in fact downgraded from even higher projections prior to 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. With no political will for the establishment of entirely new cities and little migrant interest in locating to the rural fringes of the country, the clear expectation is for these migrants to be housed in the existing population centres.
What now of the Australian Dream? While there can be no doubt it still exists among White Australians, it is increasingly becoming a fantasy from a bygone era, as younger generations are priced out of the detached housing market in all but the outer fringes of the city, where cramped lots with tiny garden spaces offer room for little more than a few paltry shrubs. Sentiments around flats and high-rise living in the cultural strongholds of White Australia do remain largely negative, but they are unfocused with no mainstream political outlet, and are too timid to address the underlying demographic issues at play (let along the Jewish roles played in this). Political forces such as the “Save Our Suburbs” campaigns, founded during the revival of high-rise living in the 1990s, now struggle to find traction in opposing the development onslaught. The erosion of what was once considered the Australian way of life is taken as a given by Australia’s political and technocratic leaders and little attempt is made to stem these changes. Opponents who deride apartment living as un-Australian or who call for an end to mass immigration (as a solution to the trifecta of housing unaffordability, urban sprawl and tower overdevelopment) and to cease the relentless growth of the property industry are despised anachronisms whose voices are destined to be silenced as “racists” or drowned out by the money of property developers. The horse has certainly bolted when one looks back to the concerns once raised that flats would foster sexual immorality or cosmopolitan radicalism and lead to a decline in native Australian birth rates—worries that now seem quaint in the face of the non-White influx and attempts to deconstruct Western Civilisation as a whole.
To speak of Australian Jewry today as “controlling” the apartment development industry is an overstatement. The Jewish vanguard has long since passed, and while still playing a vastly overrepresented role in this industry, in particular in financing, it is the “New Australians” and the non-White demographics that have picked up the baton. But without Jews taking up this vanguard role, Australian cities may have embarked on a very different urban as well as cultural and demographic path, one perhaps more consistent with the desires of Australia’s White majority. Lest any reader think the Jewish community is not cognizant of this fact, one must only consider the words of Australia’s most prominent Jewish historian, Susan Rutland, who upon surveying the achievements of the Jewish community in architecture and the property development realm, concludes:
The full acceptance and the freedom which Australia offered them has enabled them [Jews] to make substantial contributions in many different fields, and particularly in the areas of architecture and property development, changing the face of Sydney from a small, isolated, and insular backwater to a vibrant city.
That Australians so often resisted these assaults on their cities, their cultural aspirations, and the Australian way of life, and never particularly consented to the sort of “vibrancy” brought by the post-war Jewish migrants is of no concern to those who celebrate the Jewish role, in yet another area of Australian society, in delivering the country from a “mono-cultural, anglo-backwater.”
1] P. Spearritt & J. Young 2007, ‘Korman, Stanley (1904-1988)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, retrieved from https://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/korman-stanley-12755
 K. Moore 2005, ‘Embracing the Make-believe—The Making of Surfers Paradise’, Australian Studies, 18(1), p.187-210, p.195.
 M. Massey, ‘HINZE CORRUPTION CHARGES LINK BUSINESSMEN’ Australian Financial Review, 15 December 1989, retrieved from https://www.afr.com/politics/hinze-corruption-charges-link-businessmen-19891215-k3qez
 R. Boyd 1960, The Australian Ugliness, F.W. Cheshire, Melbourne, p.87.
 Ibid., p.82
 Longmire 1989, op. cit., p.230
 M. J. Zerivitz, Miami’s Jewish History – A Brief History of the Jewish Community of Greater Miami, retrieved from: https://jewishmiami.org/about/federation/miami_jewish_history/
 M. G. Lasner 2012, High Life—Condo Living in the Suburban Century, Yale University Press, NY USA, p.164
 Butler-Bowden & Pickett 2007, op. cit., p.87.
 Museum of Perth, The Krantz Legacy—Syndicates, retrieved from https://www.thekrantzlegacy.com/syndicates
 Full article on https://www.thekrantzlegacy.com/.
 O’Hanlon 2014, op. cit. p.118.
 O’Hanlon 2014, op. cit., p.133.
 I. McKay, R. Boyd, H Stretton & J. Mant 1971 Living and Partly Living—Housing in Australia, Thomas Nelson, Melbourne, p.37.
 M. G. Lasner 2012, High Life—Condo Living in the Suburban Century, Yale University Press, New York USA, p.152
 Ibid., p.249
 Ibid., p.8
 See B Sanderson 2018, ‘The War on White Australia—A Case Study in the Culture of Critique (Parts 1-5)’, The Occidental Observer, retrieved from https://www.theoccidentalobserver.net/2018/10/01/the-war-on-white-australia-a-case-study-in-the-culture-of-critique-part-1-of-5/
 The Australian Property Hall of Fame, Inductees 2012-2022, retrieved from https://propertyhalloffame.propertycouncil.com.au/inductees
 Data on ancestry sourced from the 2016 Australian Census – https://profile.id.com.au/australia/ancestry
 S. Rutland 2008, ‘Postwar Jewish Migration and Sydney’s City-scape’, Literature & Aesthetics, 18(2), p.138-155, p.141-142.
 O’Hanlon 2009, op. cit., p.239.
 Butler-Bowden & Pickett 2007, op. cit., p.131.
 Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2071.0 – Census of Population and Housing: Reflecting Australia – Stories from the Census 2016—Apartment Living, retrieved from https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/by%20Subject/2071.0~2016~Main%20Features~Apartment%20Living~20
 Commonwealth of Australia, 2021 Intergenerational Report, retrieved from https://treasury.gov.au/sites/default/files/2021-06/p2021-182464.pdf
 Rutland 2008, op. cit., p.153.
 Ibid., p.139.