Review: The Jesuit Order as a Synagogue of Jews – Part One

The Jesuit Order as a Synagogue of Jews: Jesuits of Jewish Ancestry and Purity-of-Blood Laws in the Early Society of Jesus
Robert Aleksander Maryks
Brill, 2010.
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“Those from the circumcision subverted the entire house of the Society. As sons of this world who are shrewd in dealing with their own, and avid of new things, they easily excite disorders and destroy the unity of souls and their bond with the government.”
          Lorenzo Maggio, Jesuit Curia in Rome, 1586.

One of the more interesting aspects of Jewish group behavior is the presence of subversive strategies employing crypsis, often facilitated by a combination of deception and self-deception. To date, the most forthright and convincing theoretical framework for understanding cryptic forms of Judaism is found in Kevin MacDonald’s groundbreaking Separation and Its Discontents: Toward and Evolutionary Theory of Anti-Semitism. A substantial portion of the fourth chapter of the text (1998/2004: 121–132) is devoted to ‘Reactive Racism in the Period of the Iberian Inquisitions.’ Here MacDonald puts forth the view (147) that the blood purity struggles of the Spanish Inquisition during the 15th and 16th centuries should be seen as “an authoritarian, collectivist, and exclusionary movement that resulted from resource and reproductive competition with Jews, and particularly crypto-Jews posing as Christians.” The historical context lies predominantly in the forced conversion of Jews in Spain in 1391, after which these ‘New Christians’ or conversos assumed (or indeed retained) a dominance in the areas of law, finance, diplomacy, public administration, and a wide range of economic activities. MacDonald argues (148) that despite superficial religious conversions, the New Christians “must be considered a historical Jewish group” that acted in such a way as to continue the advance of its ethnic interests. An integral aspect of this was that Wealthy New Christians purchased and endowed ecclesiastical benefices for their children, with the result that many prelates were of Jewish descent.

Indirectly, and almost certainly unintentionally, MacDonald’s arguments find much in the way of corroboration in The Jesuit Order as a Synagogue of Jews (2010) by Boston College’s Robert Aleksander Maryks. Examining the same geographical area during the same period, Maryks presents an account of the early years of the Society of Jesus, during which a fierce struggle took place for the soul, fate, and control of the Order; a struggle involving a highly influential crypto-Jewish bloc and a competing network of European Christians. In this unpolished but interesting book, Maryks illuminates this struggle with reference to previously undiscovered material, in the process shedding light on some of the most important recurring themes of reactive anti-Semitism: Jewish ethnocentrism, nepotism, the tendency to monopoly, and the strategic use of alliances with European elites. Perhaps most fascinating of all, Maryks makes significant reference to Jewish responses to European efforts to stifle their influence, some of which are remarkable in the close manner in which they parallel modern examples of Jewish apologetic propaganda. As such, The Jesuit Order as a Synagogue of Jews is highly recommended for anyone seeking to understand, via an easily-digested historical case study, the dynamics of the ethnic conflict between Jews and Europeans.

Maryks divides his text into four well-paced chapters. The first provides readers with ‘The Historical Context of Purity-of-Blood Discrimination (1391–1547),’ a detailed standalone introduction to the nature of the ‘New Christian’ problem in Iberia but which should be read in conjunction with MacDonald’s work on the same theme. The second chapter concerns ‘Early Jesuit Pro-Converso Policy (1540–72),’ which demonstrates the intensive manner in which crypto-Jews infiltrated key positions in the Society of Jesus, adapting its ideological positions in accordance with their interests, and eventually establishing a monopoly on top positions that extended to the Vatican.  The third chapter, ‘Discrimination Against Jesuits of Jewish Lineage (1573–93),’ concerns the establishment of a movement acting against the crypto-Jewish strategy, with an analysis of the key figures and their rationale. The fourth chapter, ‘Jesuit Opposition to the Purity-of-Blood Discrimination (1576–1608),’ examines the efforts of crypto-Jewish Jesuits to fight back against the European counter-strategy, often involving the employment of tactics and stances that are now familiar to us as the hallmarks of a Jewish intellectual movement.

This sequence parallels the processes that led to the Inquisition—New Christians establishing themselves in top positions in Spanish politics, business, and culture, provoking a reaction by the Old Christians aimed at regaining power, followed by Jewish counter efforts against the Inquisition and the against the Spanish government generally, the latter typically played out on the international scene.

One of the key strengths of this fascinating book is that Maryks can rely on relatively recent genealogical discoveries to prove beyond doubt that many of the individuals once merely “accused” of being crypto-Jews were undeniably of Jewish lineage. Maryks can thus cut through a clouded period in which ancestry was vital and yet fogged with accusations, denials, and counter-accusations, with tremendous clarity. In the author’s words (xxix), “racial tensions played a pivotal role in early Jesuit history.”

Opening his book, Maryks recalls delivering a paper on converso influence in the Jesuits, and afterwards receiving an email from a man with origins in the Iberian peninsula. The email concerned the remarkably long survival of crypto-Jewish behaviors in the sender’s family:

From Friday evening through Saturday evening, his grandfather would hide the image of baby Jesus from a large framed picture of St. Anthony that he kept in his home. It was, in fact, a wind-up music box. On Fridays he would wind up the mechanism and push a button, so that Jesus would disappear out of St. Anthony’s arms, hidden in the upper frame of the picture. On Saturdays he would push the button, so that Jesus would come back out from hiding into St. Anthony’s arms. As eldest son in his family, my correspondent was told this story by his father, who also asked him to eat only kosher food. (xv)

The survival of such eccentric, and in this case apparently trivial, forms of crypto-Judaism into what one assumes to be the early twentieth century, might appear to be little more than a socio-historical curio. In actual fact, however, it is a small but memorable vestige of what was once a very powerful means of continuing the Jewish group evolutionary strategy in the Iberian peninsula after 1391 — an overwhelmingly hostile environment. In a political, religious, and social context devoid of the synagogue and many of the most visible aspects of Judaism, small reminders of group difference, even otherwise trivial ones like hiding images of Jesus or adhering to discreet dietary rules, became vital methods for retaining group cohesion.

For some time, these methods were largely successful in facilitating the continuance of Jewish life ‘under the noses’ of the Christian host society. During this successful period, conversos were able to expand nepotistic monopolies of influence in a wide range of civic and even (Christian) religious spheres. When it failed, however, the consequences could be catastrophic. Maryks points out (xxii) that from its founding in 1540 to 1593, the Society of Jesus had no discriminatory legislation against individuals of Jewish heritage, and that during this period converso Jesuits “held the highest administrative offices, and defined the Society’s institutional development and spirituality.” However, significant resistance to this crypto-Jewish monopoly had developed by the latter date, and from 1593 to 1608 a power struggle resulted in the defeat of the crypto-Jewish element and the introduction of laws prohibiting the admittance of members of ‘impure blood.’ From 1608 until 1946 this involved a review of the ancestry of any potential member of the Society of Jesus, up to the fifth generation.

The Jewish Origins of the Jesuits

On 15 August 1534, Ignatius of Loyola (born Íñigo López de Loyola), a Spaniard from the Basque city of Loyola, and six others, all students at the University of Paris, met in Montmartre outside Paris, in a crypt beneath the church of Saint Denis, to pronounce the religious vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. Ignatius’ six companions were: Francis Xavier from Navarre (modern Spain), Alfonso Salmeron, Diego Laínez, Nicolás Bobadilla from Castile (modern Spain), Pierre Favre from Savoy, and Simão Rodrigues from Portugal. At this point they called themselves the Compañía de Jesús, and also Amigos en El Señor or “Friends in the Lord.” The Spanish “company” would be translated into Latin as societas, deriving from socius, a partner or comrade. This soon evolved into the “Society of Jesus” (SJ) by which they would later be more widely known.  In 1537, the seven travelled to Italy to seek papal approval for their order. Pope Paul III gave them a commendation, and permitted them to be ordained priests. The official founding of the Society of Jesus occurred in 1540.

The presence and influence of conversos in the Society of Jesus was strong from the beginning. Of the seven founding members, Maryks provides categorical evidence that four were of Jewish ancestry — Salmeron, Laínez, Bobadilla, and Rodrigues. In addition, Loyola himself has long been noted for his strong philo-Semitism, and one recent PhD thesis[1] has even advanced a convincing argument that Loyola’s maternal grandparents, (his grandfather, Dr. Martín García de Licona, was a merchant and financial advisor at court), were full-blooded conversos — thus rendering the ‘Basque nobleman’ halachically Jewish. Jewish scholar of the Inquisition, Henry Kamen, who had earlier argued that the Inquisition was “a weapon of social welfare” used mainly to obliterate the conversos as a distinct class capable of offering social and economic competition to ‘Old Christians,’ once voiced his own personal view that Loyola was “a deep and sincere spiritual Semite.”[2]

Straightforward assessments of the reasons for Loyola’s philo-Semitism are, as Maryks admirably elucidates, complicated by the ubiquitous presence of converso propaganda. More specifically, Loyola’s reputation as an ardent admirer of the Jews rests predominantly on a series of anecdotes and remarks attributed to him — and many of these derive from biographies penned shortly after his death by converso Jesuits aiming to promote and defend their interests. For example, the only source for the argument that Loyola had an overwhelming desire to be of Jewish origin so that he could “become a relative of Christ and his Mother” is the first official biography of Loyola — penned by the converso Pedro de Ribadeneyra. Ribadeneyra is described by Maryks as “a closet-converso” who distorted many now-established facts about Loyola’s life, including a concealment of the fact that “the Inquisition in Alcalá had accused Loyola of being a crypto-Jew.” (43) An important aspect of Ribadeneyra’s biography was thus the promotion of the idea that being Jewish was desirable and admirable — Loyola’s philo-Semitism (real or imagined) was intended to be emulated. Meanwhile the sinister aspects of crypto-Judaism, and their suppression by the Inquisition, were excised from the story altogether.

Whether Loyola was in fact a crypto-Jew, or whether he indeed was a European but possessed a strong desire to be a Jew, remains unconfirmed at time of this writing. However, it is certain that Loyola surrounded himself with many converso colleagues and that he opposed any discrimination against converso candidates within the Society of Jesus. Maryks argues that, issues of crypsis and philo-Semitism aside, Loyola was probably “motivated by the financial support that he had sought from their [converso] network in Spain.”(xx) In this reading then, Loyola was fully aware of the elite position of the conversos within Spanish society and was prepared to accept their money to establish his organization in exchange for adopting a non-racial stance in its governance.

The question of course remains as to why the crypto-Jewish elite in Spain would back, both financially and in terms of manpower, a Christian religious order. The important thing to keep in mind is that religion and politics in Early Modern Europe were intimately entwined, and that, through spiritual confraternities and their relationships with local elites, even poverty-espousing religious orders like the Franciscans could exert a strong form of socio-political influence. This was often made even more sharply evident when religious orders engaged in missionary work in foreign lands, often taking pioneering roles in colonial regimes, and even assisting with their economic enterprises. William Caferro notes that in Renaissance Italy “the Florentine political elite was closely tied to the church. Government officials often held high church office and benefice, which aided their local political power.”[3] Involvement in religious orders was thus a necessary aspect and extension of political, social, and cultural influence.

Unsurprisingly then, it can be demonstrated that crypto-Jews straddled the interconnected networks of royal administration, the civic bureaucracy, and the Church. Citing just some examples, Michael Baigent and Richard Leigh note in their history of the Inquisition:

In 1390 the rabbi of Burgos converted to Catholicism. He ended his life as Bishop of Burgos, Papal legate and tutor to a prince of the blood. [Burgos’s son would later become an important pro-converso activist and will be discussed below]. He was not alone. In some of the major cities, the administration was dominated by prominent converso families. At the very time the Spanish Inquisition was formed, King Ferdinand’s treasurer was converso in his background. In Aragón, the five highest administrative posts in the kingdom were occupied by conversos. In Castile, there were at least four converso bishops. Three of Queen Isabella’s secretaries were conversos, as was the official court chronicler.[4]

For the crypto-Jewish elite of early modern Spain, the founding of an influential religious order headed by a philo-Semite (if not a fellow crypto-Jew), staffed predominantly by a converso leadership, and constitutionally tolerant of converso applicants, would undoubtedly have been an attractive prospect. That a bargain of some form existed between Loyola and his crypto-Jewish sponsors is suggested, as noted above, by the nature of the early Jesuit constitution and by early correspondence concerning the admission of candidates of Jewish ancestry. The founding of the Jesuit order had coincided with the rise of a more general Spanish anti-converso atmosphere that reached its peak in 1547, “when the most authoritative expression of the purity-of- blood legislation, El Estatuto de limpieza [de sangre], was issued by the Inquisitor General of Spain and Archbishop of Toledo, Silíceo (xx).” Pope Paul IV and Silíceo’s former pupil, King Philip II, ratified the archbishop’s statutes in 1555 and 1556, respectively, but Ignatius of Loyola and his converso successor, Diego Laínez (1512–65) vigorously opposed the Inquisitor’s attempts to preclude conversos from joining the Jesuits. In fact, in a letter addressed to the Jesuit Francisco de Villanueva (1509–57), Loyola wrote that “in no way would the Jesuit Constitutions accept the policy of the archbishop (xxi).”

Seeking to quell rising tensions over the issue, in February 1554 Loyola sent his plenipotentiary emissary, Jerónimo Nadal (1507–80), to visit the Inquisitor. Nadal insisted that the Jesuit Constitutions did not discriminate between candidates of the Society on the basis of lineage, and even personally admitted a number of converso candidates during his visit to Iberia. In a heated debate with the Inquisitor over the admission of one of them, Nadal replied: “We [Jesuits] take pleasure in admitting those of Jewish ancestry.” In what would become a striking pattern, most of the pro-converso arguments were made by crypto-Jews claiming to be native Spaniards. Maryks notes that his historical investigations suggest that Nadal was “most probably a descendant of Majorcan Jews (77).”

Jewish attempts to alter Christian thinking about Jews, from within Christianity, were already well-established by the date of Nadal’s intercession with the Inquisitor. An excellent example is the classic work of Alonso de Santa María de Cartagena (1384–1456) — Defensorium unitatis christianae [In Defense of Christian Unity] (1449–50). Alonso de Cartagena had been baptized (at the age of five or six) by his father Shlomo ha-Levi, later renamed Pablo de Santa María (c. 1351–1435), who— as chief rabbi of Burgos—converted to Christianity just before the anti-Jewish riots of 1391 and later was elected bishop of Cartagena (1402) and Burgos (1415). The fact that the wife of this Bishop of Burgos remained an unconverted Jewess does not appear to have impeded the latter’s career in the Church is interesting to say the least.

Meanwhile his son, Cartagena, like many other conversos, studied civil and ecclesiastical law at Salamanca and went on to a highly influential career straddling royal, civic, and religious spheres. He served as apostolic nuncio and canon in Burgos. King Juan II appointed Cartagena as his official envoy to the Council of Basel (1434–9), where he contributed to the formulation of a decree on “the regenerative character of baptism without regard for lineage (4).” Like other examples of pro-converso propaganda, however, Cartagena’s arguments always went beyond mere appeals for ‘tolerance.’ According to Cartagena, “the faith appears to be more splendid in the Israelite flesh,” Jews naturally possess a “civic nobility,” and it was the duty of rough and uncouth native Spaniards to unite with the “tenderness of the Israelite meekness.” (14, 17)

Conversos thus emerge in the works of the earliest crypto-Jewish activists as more special than ordinary Christians, as naturally deserving of an elite status, and, far from being the worthy objects of hostility, were in fact uniquely blameless, ‘tender,’ and ‘meek.’ One is struck by the regular use of similar arguments in our contemporary environment, a similarity that only increases when one considers Cartagena’s attribution of anti-Jewish hostility solely to “the malice of the envious.” (20)

Against this backdrop of crypto-Jewish apologetics, Maryks demonstrates, whether he intends to or not, that the early Jesuits were largely a vehicle for converso power and influence (both political and ideological). Loyola continued to be “surrounded” by conversos throughout his leadership (55). Enrique Enríques, the son of Portuguese Jews, even authored the first Jesuit manual of moral theology, Theologiae moralis summa, in 1591. (65) Maryks describes Loyola as having an unlimited “trust” in candidates of Jewish heritage, citing his decision to “admit in 1551 Giovanni Battista Eliano (Romano), the grandson of the famous grammarian and poet Rabbi Elijah Levita (1468–1549) …. He entered the Society at the age of twenty-one, just three months after his baptism (66).”

In explaining Loyola’s lax requirements for converso applicants, and resultant acquiescence in flooding the Society with crypto-Jews, it is strange that Maryks should abandon his own prior suggestion that the founding of the Jesuits may have rested on a quid pro quo with the converso elite in favor of a less convincing theory based on a putative and ill-explained “trust” that Loyola possessed for Jews. Unfortunately this is a common theme throughout Jewish historiography, where the facts and conclusions presented in the same text are often on entirely different trajectories. In a similar vein, Maryks’s skeletal explanation that crypto-Jews flooded the Jesuits simply because Loyola had “numerous contacts with the converso spiritual and merchant network” before he founded the Society of Jesus, seems woefully inadequate and lacking in context.

Despite the best laid plans of Loyola and his colleagues, and just 32 years after its founding, the Society of Jesus would undergo a revolt from below against a rapidly expanding crypto-Jewish elite. The features of this revolt represent a fascinating case study in the reactive nature of anti-Semitism. Maryks narrative of how two competing ethnic groups struggled for the future of the Jesuit Order, outlined in his second and third chapters, is certainly the greatest strength of the text. It is to this European counter-strategy that we now turn our attention.

Go to Part 2.

[1] See Kevin Ingram, Secret lives, public lies: The conversos and socio-religious non-conformism in the Spanish Golden Age. Ph.D. Thesis (San Diego: University of California, 2006), pp. 87–8.

[2] Quoted in Maryks, The Jesuit Order as a Synagogue of Jews, p.xx.

[3] W. Caferro, Contesting the Renaissance (Oxford:Wiley-Blackwell, 2010), p.158.

[4] M. Baigent & R. Leigh, The Inquisition (London: Viking Press, 1999), pp.75-6.

61 replies
  1. Ger Tzedek
    Ger Tzedek says:

    Now I have come to think that Fidel Castro was a converso. His illegitimate son Justin Trudeau knows that he is a converso, and behaves with much contempt against Whites.

    • Ian
      Ian says:

      Interested to see what you have to say about the inner turmoil in part 2. A compelling view I’ve considered is that it was the crypto-jews themselves who undertook this “cleansing” in order to fully control the order. That is, to forge documents and ensure it remained a crypto-Jew group. Same with the Inquisition in Goa. Show how pious and “down with the cause” you are, but do it far away from your crypto-Jewish base.

      Also, the Jesuit working with rabbi in Vatican 2 is disturbing, as is a Pope “retiring” for the first time in history before the first Jesuit Pope is elected.

      • Ger Tzedek
        Ger Tzedek says:

        I am starting to suspect that Pope Francis is in fact a crypto-Jew. There are so many that this is no surprise at all. His contempt for White people is very obvious. If Pope Benedict 16 didn’t retire, they would have killed him. They have done this before. I am fully aware of the modus operandi of Jews and crypto-Jews. They are morally virtuous to the last drop. It just happens that all pedophiles are Jews, are never caught, and when by chance are caught, get forgiven — the Christian way. Christians are demonized out of thin air. This, I am talking from a personal perspective.

    • Curmudgeon
      Curmudgeon says:

      Trudeau was born in 1971, 9 1/2 months after Pierre and his mother were married. There is no evidence that his mother met Castro before 1976. Are you suggesting a satanic ritual involving artificial insemination, or Castro sneaking away somewhere to breed Margaret (Sinclair) Trudeau?

    • FR
      FR says:

      Many years ago I saw a book of one of Castro’s mistresses, a German. (In a German bookstore.) There was a remark that his grandfather (paternal or maternal I don’t remember) was called “El Turco”, of Sephardic origin from Turkey.

  2. Ger Tzedek
    Ger Tzedek says:

    Jewish higher intelligence is in good agreement with my observation that Jewish culture, Torah, Talmud are all Borderline Personality Disorder. Even the fact that Jews have been kicked out 111 times is in good agreement with that. In fact, the wandering Jew behaves as if he will never meet his victim again. Now thanks to internet the world has shrunk, and has become more hostile to Jews.

    • T. J.
      T. J. says:

      I read Borderline Conditions and Pathological Narcissism [Otto Friedmann Kernberg] forty years ago].

      I only remember one key idea: “narcissists cannot stand the autonomy of others.”

      The rest of the book is good for wrapping fish.

      Narcissism is/was considered untreatable. They why do ($(they)$) continue to offer treatment?

      • Ger Tzedek
        Ger Tzedek says:

        That’s 40 years old. The knowledge of the problem has advanced a lot meanwhile. Thanks for “narcissists cannot stand the autonomy of others.” That fits the bill with a sociopath that did me damage and that ultimately brought down. The problem is, even if you fully submit to a sociopath, they are never fully convinced of it, and will continuously demand humiliating public proof of your worship of them. All of this, for what? Can do better alone.

        It has become my belief that the problem with the Western man is… forgiveness. It makes our societies too good a breeding ground for sociopaths — Jews.

  3. George F. Held
    George F. Held says:

    I know from personal experience that other Catholic religious orders are not overly fond of the Jesuits. This stems at least in part from the Jesuits’ promotion of the theology of Jacques Maritain. Maritain was a converso, not from Judaism but Protestantism. He had however a close association with and affection for Jews. His wife was a Russian Jew who converted to Catholicism with him, and he himself notably assisted persecuted Jews:
    “During the Second World War, Jacques Maritain protested the policies of the Vichy government while teaching at the Pontifical Institute for Medieval Studies in Canada. “Moving to New York, Maritain became deeply involved in rescue activities, seeking to bring persecuted and threatened academics, many of them Jews, to America. He was instrumental in founding the École Libre des Hautes Études, a kind of university in exile that was, at the same time, the center of Gaullist resistance in the United States”. After the war, in a papal audience on 16 July 1946, he tried unsuccessfully to have Pope Pius XII officially denounce anti-semitism” (from Wikipedia’s entry on Maritain).
    The point of Maritain’s thought, in very brief, is that the Catholic Church should be less concerned with saving souls for an afterlife than with improving living conditions in this life. His influence on the present pope, those who elected him, and on the modern Church in general should be obvious. The following is also from Wikipedia:
    “Maritain was a strong defender of a natural law ethics. . . . Of central importance, is Maritain’s argument that natural rights are rooted in the natural law. This was key to his involvement in the drafting of the UN’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
    Maritain advocated what he called ‘Integral Humanism.’ He argued that secular forms of humanism were inevitably anti-human in that they refused to recognize the whole person. Once the spiritual dimension of human nature is rejected, we no longer have an integral, but merely partial humanism, one which rejects a fundamental aspect of the human person. Accordingly, in Integral Humanism he explores the prospects for a new Christendom, rooted in his philosophical pluralism, in order to find ways Christianity could inform political discourse and policy in a pluralistic age. In this account he develops a theory of cooperation, to show how people of different intellectual positions can nevertheless cooperate to achieve common practical aims. Maritain’s political theory was extremely influential, and was a primary source behind the Christian Democratic movement.
    Maritain also corresponded with, and was a friend of the American radical community organizer Saul Alinsky and French Prime Minister Robert Schuman.”
    In my senior year of high school my Latin teacher, a young Harvard-educated Jesuit, one day, much to the surprise of the class, denounced the study of Classics and informed us that we should all rather be studying science so that we could do some good in the world. It seemed to me very good advice at the time, but ultimately I ignored it. I have a Ph.D. in Classics.

    • Anthony Clifton
      Anthony Clifton says:

      did you happen to find when the first yiddish speaking proselyte
      to Talmudic Judaism…shows up in the old testament…

      were all the Iberian so-called “Jews” sepharvaim…?

      when the 33rd chapter of deuteronomy contains no
      so-called “Jews” amongst the tribes of Israel…
      wouldn’t that mean that the story of the Children of
      Israel doesn’t actually have anything {to do} with mohels
      giving baby boys herpes, and in fact it isn’t the
      Palestinians who are Terrorists in fact it is the
      Jesus hating Bolshevik/Zionistpsychopathic
      stool sculpture deity cult members who are really
      sophisticated identity thieves
      with nukes

    • Pierre de Craon
      Pierre de Craon says:

      @Mr. Held: I think that your characterization of Maritain’s background and ideas is very sound. I do not agree, however, with Wikipedia’s assessment and yours with respect to the extent of his influence down to the present day, especially as regards Pope Francis.

      For the European hard Left, both the political and the soi-disant religious—of which Bergoglio grew up as a transatlantic member—Maritain was, I believe, never more than a useful distraction from the forties on. For the hard Right, whether monarchist, aristocratic, anti-Dreyfusard, or simply devout Catholic, Maritain was someone who lost all credibility (and a great many friends) after he sided with the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War against Franco’s forces. Had I been alive back then, I would certainly have joined such otherwise radically differing men as Maurras and Claudel in scorning further contact with Maritain.

      As for the championing of his theology by the Jesuits being a factor in the antagonism toward them from other religious orders, I entertain doubts there, too. Yes, they did so, as much here in the States as in Europe, but by the late thirties, the Jesuits had become so prominent in the papally condemned Modernist vanguard that emerged permanently from the shadows at Vatican II that their embrace of Maritain became the least of the gripes against them within the Church Militant. Though few lay Catholics knew much of what was happening behind the scenes, quite the opposite was the case within the other major religious orders. Even through the sixties there were a great many genuinely orthodox Jesuits to be found on both sides of the Atlantic, but those at the top in the society’s military-style hierarchy were the ones who set the goals and called the shots. That those leaders’ intellectual skills had turned to the sophisticated but unprincipled manipulation of religious truth may be seen in the fact that even today, conciliar Catholics think of such men as Gustave Weigel, John Courtney Murray, and Karl Rahner as rigidly orthodox theologians!

      Finally, I’m very glad that you rejected the advice of that Harvard-educated Jesuit you mentioned and set your cap for the classics.

  4. Yeoman Archer
    Yeoman Archer says:

    For those interested, On-Line locations for the book.
    The Jesuit Order as a Synagogue of Jews
    Jesuits of Jewish Ancestry and Purity-of-Blood Laws in the Early Society of Jesus

    Remember: This a large book, over 316 pages. The file size is very large 6.8MB.

    This statement is published on page iv:
    This is an open access title distributed under the terms of the cc-by-nc License, which permits any non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.
    An electronic version of this book is freely available, thanks to the support of libraries working with Knowledge Unlatched. More information about the initiative can be found at .

    Brill Online Books and Journals

    Access full text book:

    If above fails, try
    However the download here is broken into many sub sections.

    There are several other sites for this text. Many are copy protected, but with some creativity a solution is possible.

    • tadzio308
      tadzio308 says:

      Thank you for this fine antidote to another Talmudic tactic, that of making adversarial information hard to come by. The book is less than 10 years old and despite commanding high prices has not been reissued. Amazon has 4 copies on offer, priced $244.27, $335.37, $408.99 and $533.34. A bit rich for my thin purse. Perhaps some kabbalist can conjure up an explanation of these seemingly odd looking numbers.

      • Yeoman Archer
        Yeoman Archer says:

        Dear Tadzio308,
        Thank you for your words of camaraderie and fellowship.
        As stated before, the Talmudian brays about their 5778 years of complete and total subjugation of the “other”, which in this era means those of us of the Western Civilization. Their Kabbalistic masquerade of “Liberté, égalité, fraternité” ,wears thin. We are told by the Heuchlern that it is immoral to enslave a human because of skin color, but then they in the same voice say economic slavery is acceptable if it was voted into power through the Kabbalistic contrived “De Mob Crap: See!”.
        As one more learned then me states “Lord Have Mercy”.

    • TomV
      TomV says:

      Thank you so much for this link to on line copy of the book. After reading this article (actually before finishing it) I went to Amazon to see if I could buy it. As tadzio308 has noted it costs hundreds of dollars.
      Now thanks to you I have a PDF copy (my preferred reading format) on my desktop.

      • Richard Raymond
        Richard Raymond says:

        Amen! Been a topic of curiosity for a long time.
        Saved me a lot of money.
        God bless Yeoman Archer.

  5. buckle
    buckle says:

    I was educated for two years by the Jesuits. Their biggest problem was the way the Irish American branch went totally nativist. This was a problem of the wider Irish American community anyway and the Jesuit order were simply its most articulate and cerebral voice. Too much is read into their influence. By the law of averages, if you educate a guy for at least ten years (eighteen years was not unknown amongst our teachers) then you will see lots of clever men about the place. The last great English language poet Hopkins (better than anything the Americans have produced in two hundred plus years of trying) was a British Jesuit. One of the last century’s greatest physicists was a Belgian Jesuit. One of its most underrated economists was a German Jesuit and so on. That’s the way they roll. The destruction that the Jesuits wrought in the Catholic Church since the war has its roots in the Americanist heresy.

    • Mari
      Mari says:

      Buckle, what’s the Americanism heresy and what’s Irish nativism?

      This article is interesting I knew the Jesuit’s were always in conflict with the rest of the church, popes, bishops, and numerous governments, but I never knew many of them were crypto Jews.

      I always learn something new at TOO.

      • buckle
        buckle says:

        Mari, Leo XIII identified the problem in Things got out of hand after the war and the English Cardinal Heenan, visiting America, found an American Catholic Church totally obsessed with the communist threat. The Irish American community were the first to go native as they had been around the longest. William F. Buckley jr. was an example of this phenomenon. There is an interview with Woody Allen from 1967 where he can be seen throwing General DeGaulle under a bus. This and other websites are full of Buckley anecdotes exhibiting similar behaviours. His firing of Joe Sobran is the most famous yet you never hear Sobran blaming a Jesuit conspiracy for his treatment at the hands of Buckley.

  6. Thim Page
    Thim Page says:

    I remember reading in the works of the Scottish Calvinist John Knox, writing in the 1500’s, that the Spanish and their Jesuits were Jews. At the time I was skeptical, but evidently he knew. Cannot give the reference, but it was in his short diatribe against Bloody Mary, one of the best anti-feminist books ever written, by the way. We have had a long struggle against this enemy, 2000 years, and no end is in sight. This article is must reading, and thank you for it.

    • Mari
      Mari says:

      I always thought that Knox was very pro Jewish or at least valued the Jewish part of the Bible over the Christian part of the Bible. The essence of Calvinism was John Calvin’s proclamation “ there is but one God and that is the God of Israel”
      Isn’t the essence of Christianity that Jesus the son of God is also God?
      Knox preached that the only God was the God of Israel, the God of the Jews.

      Knox and Calvin seem to be more blatant crypto Jews than the Jesuits.

  7. Trenchant
    Trenchant says:

    Without wishing to tar all with the same brush, Jesuit Cardinal Augustin Bea played a decisive role (with the B’nai B’rith’s Label Katz) in the drafting of Nostra aetate, the effects of which are visible in today’s radical ecumenism.

  8. Charlie
    Charlie says:

    What I find most disturbing about Catholcism today is the church’s demand for complete unquestioned loyalty to the Jew. et. al. “bAbY jEeBuS wAs JoOiSh”. If you question why be loyal to a tribe that has destroyed Catholcism the priest will begin pounding on the table with balled up fists, flipping over furniture…. until they order you “Well you can just get the HELL out of here!!” It’s the same old crushing authoritarianism it’s been for centuries. The Catholic Church never seems to get it that being a part of the church is voluntary and that they no longer have the authority either morally or spiritually to “demand” any tribute to the jew.

  9. Rerevisionist
    Rerevisionist says:

    There’s a fascinating paper by Miles Mathis online, about the Quakers as crypto-Jews, the evidence being the treatment of heretics (extremely cruel) vs Quakers, after Fox had long talks with Cromwell. As long as Christianity is based on Jews, then Jews will have a foothold. My own view is that ‘Jesus Christ’ was an imposture pushed into original Christianity by Jews, a bit like deciding to subvert (say) Americanism, by inventing ‘Yeshua Americ” and repeating it with the fervour of Holohoax liars. Probably most ‘heresies’ in the last few thousand years have been Jewish. Probably most of the economic arrangements of churches have been jewish, too.

    • Rerevisionist
      Rerevisionist says:

      DR Joyce states the Iberian peninsula after 1391 — [was] an overwhelmingly hostile environment.
      This is the Jewish view, presumably, but it’s obviously not true. They were not killed, chucked out, or fleeced.
      Another issue is why should there have been a get-together to get money, presumably from Jews, to establish a new order, with its own rules, and all the rest of it? I get the impression (eg from Youtube) that Maryks is Catholic, maybe from Poland, and avoids the issue. But presumably it’s as important to try to identify why it should have been invented as it is important to establish e.g. why the UN was invented, or the US Constitution. As ‘Charlie’ says or implies, Catholics will not go the roots of their elaborate money-making charade.
      I’d like to warn people that DNA tests and results may be as unreliable as other aspects of cell biochemistry ‘research’. Just bear it in mind!
      NB the ‘Cuba crisis’ in TV and media over supposed missile-delivered nukes is an elegant example of simultaneous multiple Jew frauds.
      Um… buckle, what’s a GES please?

        • Trenchant
          Trenchant says:

          Maybe it was, but we’re talking at cross purposes. Judaism is a racial-religious synthesis; Islam and Christianity merely faiths. As regards the “Abrahamic” thing, the crowd might be wrong but one ignores its sensibilities at one’s own peril.

  10. Avi Marranazo
    Avi Marranazo says:

    Please don’t refer to Spain and Portugal (the countries of the Iberian Peninsula) as “Iberia”, an ancient Greek name for the landmass. During the period in question in this study, it was known as Hispania. So if you feel the need to use an historic moniker, I suggest you go with that one.

  11. Irish Savant
    Irish Savant says:

    Always fascinated by this subject as my first cousin entered the Jesuits as a young man many years ago. He left before ordination claiming there was ‘something not right, not Christian’ about the order. (He subsequently became a Marist monk). This was ridiculed by his contemporaries and caused great distress to his parents who saw the Jesuits as the elite of the elite.

    • Curmudgeon
      Curmudgeon says:

      A 1949 book by Lucien Vinet – “I Was A Priest” outlined many of things taught at a Jesuit seminary your cousin may have sensed were “not right, not Christian”.

  12. Pierre de Craon
    Pierre de Craon says:

    This article surprises me because of the unwonted absence on Dr. Joyce’s part of skepticism toward or even critical examination of the bona fides of Robert Aleksander Maryks.

    Maryks, a Polish-born homosexual who is anything but closeted or repentant and, hence, anything but a true Catholic, has devoted his entire career to what Kevin MacDonald, Brenton Sanderson, Dr. Joyce himself, and others have revealed to be the subversion of Western values by means of “critical” falsification of evidence generally and the evidence connected with institutional origins more particularly.

    I suggest that anyone interested in truth’s fullness take several minutes to look at one especially public aspect of Maryks’s public record: namely, the pages at Amazon devoted to presentation of his various books. This page, for example, dedicated to A Companion to Ignatius of Loyola: Life, Writings, Spirituality, Influence, carries the usual laudatory quotes from early reviewers. Note the prominence in the description of the book’s contents of such giveaway terms of critical subversion as its being at the “cutting edge of Ignatian scholarship” in its “vibrancy,” which seeks “to demythologize a canonized saint and founder whose life has been falsely represented both by admirers and detractors.” Earlier scholarship on Ignatius—whose life and work, do not forget, have been examined under the microscope for 450 years by men who were far from being sanctimonious fools and deluded dunces—is dismissed by these same critics for having “overlooked or heretofore simplistically theorized issue[s]” of newly discovered but very, very grave importance to a truly (((correct))) appraisal of the saint and founder.

    Similar tendentious but informative rubbish may be found in critiques of every one of Maryks’s other books—and not only at Amazon.

    Furthermore, Maryks’s Facebook page and online CV reveal something his longtime detractors (i.e., Traditional [aka actual] Catholics) know well: that he is editor of the Journal of Jesuit Studies, a periodical whose aim is to reflect the present-day society’s full-bore support for the Judaization and doctrinal corruption within the Church that acquired institutional approval—or rather, normative status—at the Second Vatican Council. And does it truly need to be added that the election of Jorge Mario Bergoglio as Pope Francis created an ipso facto necessity to “redefine” the founding of the Society of Jesus to bring it into something like conformity with the subversive spirit and material heresy of this enemy of the Cross, who has already assured himself of perhaps the highest place in the canon of bad popes?*

    In further support of the opinion that Maryks speaks with forked tongue, I suggest a perusal of this 1981 document published by the Jesuits themselves for the edification and instruction of Jesuit priests. Although it is unflattering to the point of outright insult to the Jesuits’ sainted founder, St. Ignatius of Loyola and the Jews, by James W. Reites, SJ, has the frankly stated purpose of helping members of the order bring their minds round to the new “truths” about both the Faith and the Jews that Vatican II “revealed”—or put otherwise, created out of whole cloth. One of the “difficulties” Father Reites’s monograph addresses is Ignatius’s utter lack of genetic Jewish connections and his distressingly enthusiastic applause for Pope Paul IV’s bull Cum nimis absurdum, “which Jewish historians consider the most infamous and discriminatory legislation ever to issue from the Papal States” (p. 10), a judgment Father Reites makes haste to second.

    I respectfully ask all readers, including Dr. Joyce, to spend a half hour examining this monograph, with special attention to part 2, “Formation of the Society’s Attitude toward the Jews.” After doing so, could any reader still honestly declare that it is likely that Father Reites would have neglected the chance to “reframe” the sordidly anti-Semitic past of the founding generation of Jesuits** in a direction more consonant with the new orthodoxy had the means to do so been available to him on the historical record? I know not whether Father Reites is still alive today, but if he is, I’d like to ask him whether he has any regrets that he didn’t anticipate Maryks by thirty years by simply lying in his teeth!

    In conclusion, my contention is that Maryks, in the book that is the subject of Dr. Joyce’s article, probably presents as true a picture of Ignatius and the other Jesuit founders as “the Boasians [did] with their fake race science (utilized in the debates over the immigration law of 1965), psychoanalysis [did] with its fake sex science, and the Frankfurt School [did] with its fake theory that ethnocentric Whites have a psychiatric disorder resulting from poor parenting” (Kevin MacDonald).
    *Unless, that is, a genuinely orthodox successor adjudges Bergoglio an anti-pope.

    • buckle
      buckle says:

      In other words you are saying that the book must be crap. Americans in particular seem to fall victim to snake oil salesmen. A point I made clumsily in my comment about the English Cardinal Heenan (who had been educated by Jesuits in Rome). Do Americans seriously believe that the primary purpose of the Jesuits is to provide succour to the Jewish people? This from a country whose economy, media, politicians and foreign policy are totally controlled by the Jewish lobby? You have to admit Pierre, this is bat shit crazy.

      • Pierre de Craon
        Pierre de Craon says:

        To be fair, buckle, Andrew Joyce is not a Yank. You shouldn’t tar him with that brush!

        Besides, I am rather inclined to think that the present-day corruption and large-scale apostasy of the Jesuits are such that the venomous hatred and prejudice their astonishing conversion and Counter-Reformation successes generated now often seem merely avant la lettre by 350 years!

        Lastly, to quote Mr. Jefferson, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind surely requires a bit of context for an assertion that Maryks’s book has to be crap. It took me three days worth of limited strength and energy to assemble the evidence and draft my account, and yet I think Dr. Joyce’s track record hereabouts merits no less. Do you truly not agree, my friend?

        • Pierre de Craon
          Pierre de Craon says:

          (Mod. Note: Pierre, your precision and integrity in using our English language has set the standard for TOO comments. Thanks to you and several others here, many “typos” have been caught and corrected, thus “Keeping TOO Great Still”. Thank you! And BE WELL … we are all wishing you the best.)

    • Kim
      Kim says:

      Dr. Joyce, Pierre de Craon’s comment certainly demands your honest replay for if Pierre de Craon is correct, and from my review of his arguments he appears to be, your review becomes questionable to put it lightly.

      • Pierre de Craon
        Pierre de Craon says:

        Thank you very much for reading my comment and its supporting material, Kim. I believe that what Maryks has to teach us can all be filed under the heads of Vice and Sycophancy.

        Merry Christmas and sincere wishes for a happy, healthy, and prosperous New Year.

    • T. J.
      T. J. says:

      Question for Pierre:

      Does the Roman Church exist for the Communicants, or do the Communicants exist for the Church?

      • Pierre de Craon
        Pierre de Craon says:

        You’re not asking a question, T.J.; you’re simply sneering. You’ve made plain time and again that you have all the answers.

        And apropos the “disclosure” higher up this thread about a certain historical Pierre de Craon, about five or six years ago either you, using a different screen name back then, or someone with a similar attitude cited the very same Wikipedia listing with the very same snarky “gotcha” implication. My response now is what it was then: it is naive to assume that that Pierre was the one and only such in history, and it is mistaken to conclude that he is the knight whose colors I wear or memory I invoke. This time round I’ll add, with apologies to A. Pope, that your actions suggest that a little Internet savvy is a dangerous thing.

    • Richard Raymond
      Richard Raymond says:

      I really appreciate your comment, I downloaded the PDF, the question I have is the book worth the time and effort to read or is it so slanted as to not be worth the time? I am Catholic and only recently became interested in this particular subject.
      If you advise not can you recommend a book more accurate on this same subject?

      • Pierre de Craon
        Pierre de Craon says:

        Mr. Raymond: As I haven’t read the book by Maryks that Andrew Joyce reviews with praise, please recall that any recommendation from me to the effect that it’s not worth the time needs to be hedged about with the sort of provisos that I offered in my lengthy initial comment. That being said, I indeed see no reason to think it’s worth anyone’s time, and as I strongly urged, I also think Doctor Joyce has in this instance been led down the garden path.

        To answer your request, I could hardly do better than point you toward Saint Ignatius Loyola: The Pilgrim Years 1491-1538, by James Brodrick, SJ. A highly informed, subtle, and scholarly biographer, Brodrick never confuses history with eulogy or adulation. His elegantly written book, in a recent paperback reissue, may be found both new and used at Amazon and elsewhere for around ten bucks or, used, for much less.

        Also very recommendable is a Penguin Classics collection of Ignatius’s writings, Saint Ignatius of Loyola: Personal Writings. It includes the important and very influential “Spiritual Exercises,” as well as private papers and diary extracts. A more academic volume, Ignatius of Loyola: Spiritual Exercises and Selected Works, was published in the Classics of Western Spirituality series from Paulist Press. Some 500 pages long, it has a detailed biographical preface, and each text by Ignatius has a scholarly introduction and annotation. It, too, can be gotten at Amazon for ten to twenty bucks depending on its condition.

  13. ilena
    ilena says:

    I overlooked the download for the book and went to Amazon where they are charging $245 for a new edition and $738 for a used edition. Then, I just saw the download and got it for free. 🙂

  14. Charles Frey
    Charles Frey says:

    At a time in which mis- and dis-informations outnumber truths, it’s potentially embarrassing to opine on anything.

    Nevertheless, I read that there was a family around the later time in question in this essay, living in Lisbon, by the name Campo di Rossi. This family, or a branch of it, resettled in Venice: as in ” The Merchant of…”.

    Once again, this family, or a branch thereof, then resettled in Amsterdam: henceforth known as Roosevelt. [ Field of roses ]. Thence to New Amsterdam or New York City; after its name change.

    Kennedy was the first Catholic President: was FDR the first Jewish one; crypto or otherwise ?

    Anyone out there to corroborate, or debunk this wisdom, for the edification of the readers ?

    The old, effective scheme for forcing change. Create a problem, then really fix it. The American Bankers Association instructed its members to call all loans and to issue no new ones, in the summer of 29.

    As a result, the average cash on hand, per person, including the young and elderly, not exactly part of the business community, was ca. $ 40. That cash-starved population, incapable of carrying on any kind of business, or job creation, ended up in the soup-kitchens. Their farms foreclosed on: quite {{{ legally }}}.

    But wait ! How about the New Deal, to fix this [ created ]problem. ” Grapes of Wrath ” aside. After all, Will Duranty of the authoritative New York Times, America’s ” paper of record “, as Chief Disinformatzia Agent in the US, assured us of the recent, innovative successes in the nascent Soviet Union.

    Washington – media – NY bankers – justice – academia – property theft in all its forms: all the benefits of a democracy. And why wasn’t Putin born earlier, so that we could hang this one on him as well.

    So – was he, FDR, or wasn’t he ?

    Despite this, and with the hope of a better, hard-won tomorrow, Happy New Year.

    • T. J.
      T. J. says:

      Yes, (((Keynesian economics))) to inflate our way out of the depression.

      Without this “stimulus” we’d still be stuck in the thirties. Human survival without the fake money becomes impossible. . .

      The excuse for monetary contraction? To curb the excesses of the roaring twenties. The excuse for more funny money? To curb the contraction [deflation]. Inflation [monetary debasement] became official policy with the Full Employment Act of 1946. Full employment is impossible without the fake money. . .these nice folks don’t really want to debase the currency. . .their hands are tied. . .

      The only solution to these myriad problems is Federal Action. The USA would be hell on wheels without Progressive Legislation. . .

  15. Occidental Fan
    Occidental Fan says:

    (Mod. Note: If anyone wants to report a “typo” to this moderator, please submit the original word or phrase, and follow that with what you think it SHOULD BE. Your assistance is always appreciated. Also, if you preface the note with “@ Mod”, your note will not be published.)

  16. Stan Burns
    Stan Burns says:

    Professor Revilo P. Oliver on F.D.R.:

    Everyone knows that the loathsome monster called Franklin Roosevelt was partly Jewish through the Delanos; what is not positively ascertained is whether he may not also have inherited a Jewish taint through the Roosevelts. (“The Spurious Shekel”)

  17. Seraphim
    Seraphim says:

    @the wife of this Bishop of Burgos remained an unconverted Jewess

    Apparently, Jews do not fully agree with that assertion.
    “Halevi’s two brothers and his sister, as well as his five children, were also baptized at the same time. Only some time later, however, did his wife, Joanna, decide to join them”.
    read more:
    “At first his wife refused to follow his example, but she accepted baptism a few years later”
    Anyhow, it is doubtful that after his ordination he remained married.

    Paul of Burgos is reviled to this day by the Jews:
    “This Day in Jewish History / Rabbi Turned Archbishop and Jew Hater Dies. Paul of Burgos, born Solomon Halevi, came to serve the court at the highest levels and to embitter the lives of his former people”.
    ‘As an apostate Jew, Paul was active in encouraging other Jews to convert, and in making their lives bitter so long as they didn’t. As chancellor, he was the moving spirit behind a edict, introduced in 1412, that greatly restricted the ability of Jews to move around and to engage in commerce – unless they were willing to undergo baptism’.
    read more:

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