Category Archives: Western Culture

The Rotherham Pathology

The horrifying scandal in Rotherham (previous versions covered copiously for TOO by Tobias Langdon) continues to unfold. A report commissioned by the city council stated that at least 1400 children were sexually abused over 16 years. It is hard to describe the appalling nature of the abuse that child victims suffered. They were raped by multiple perpetrators, trafficked to […]

Ricardo Duchesne on Ethnicity and Liberalism

Ricardo Duchesne has a new article at the Council of European Canadians on a so-called conservative critique of multiculturalism (“Salim Mansur and the Conservative (Anti-European) Critique of Multiculturalism). [M]y emphasis on ethnic identity is consistent with classical liberalism. The freedom of the individual can only be sustained and actualized if this freedom is part of a larger […]

Žižek, Group Selection, and the Western Culture of Guilt

I am not going to try to figure out why academic left superstar Slavoj Žižek would want to review The Culture of Critique but he did (Steve Sailer: “Slavoj Žižek on Kevin MacDonald’s Culture of Critique“). Perhaps it’s part of his persona where he writes things that are jarring and paradoxical — which is what I get from […]

Ricardo Duchesne reviews Grant Havers’ “Leo Strauss and Anglo-American Democracy”

In discussing the development of the ideology of America as a proposition nation, I have emphasized the work of philosopher Horace Kallen — a theme of Chapter 7 of The Culture of Critique (p. 248ff). Ricardo Duchesne’s review of  Leo Strauss and Anglo-American Democracy: A Conservative Critique by Grant Havers (University of Northern Illinois Press, 2013) emphasizes […]

Tales of Blood and Gods: Some Thoughts on Religion and Race

“How strangely things grow, and die, and do not die! There are twigs of that great world-tree of Norse belief still curiously traceable.” Thomas Carlyle, Lectures on Heroes, 1841.  I come from a long line of atheists, heretics, and breakers of convention. I’m sceptical about anything related to what’s considered the paranormal or supernatural. I […]

Alexander Dugin’s 4 Political Theory is for the Russian Empire, not for European Ethno-Nationalists

Only a rare few in the alternative right knew Alexander Dugin before the publication and translation of his book, The Fourth Political Theory, in 2012. Suddenly, the contents of this book became the subject of lively discussion and he was hailed as “arguably the most prominent New Right thinker in the world.”  With the exception […]

Review of Mjolnir: Magazine for the Creative Arts

Mjolnir: Magazine for the Creative Artss Issue 1: Blast Off David Yorkshire, Editor “Leftism is the lie writ large. In any case, the right knows that equality itself is a fabrication and can only be achieved and maintained by holding back those who strive for excellence. The opposite of equality is quality. So it is […]

On Identity

The following is a speech by Alain de Benoist at the NPI conference at The Ronald Reagan Building, Washington DC, October 26, 2013, translated from the French by Tom Sunic Ladies and Gentlemen, Before I start off with my speech, I would like to apologize for having an obligation to inflict some pain on you! […]

Recently in The Occidental Quarterly: Special Sections on White Pathology

This is an introduction to special sections in the Summer and Fall issues of The Occidental Quarterly focused on White pathology. Whatever blame for our situation that we place on others, the bottom line is that we are allowing the unfolding disaster to happen. It is unprecedented for a civilization to voluntarily cede political and cultural […]

The West against Europe

The following is the English translation of my speech in French, given in Lyon, France, on May 25, for the French identitarians (students, members of the “GUD” and “Europe Identité.”)  The speech was delivered in honor of the late Dominique Venner, a historian and philosopher who committed suicide on May 21. On May 26, the […]

Moral Capital and White Interests

I just finished a book titled Moral Capital by Christopher Leslie Brown  on the movement to abolish the slave trade and then slavery itself in the British Empire. The  take home message is that  the abolitionist movement  thrived on moral capital. Even by 1790, popular opinion was persuaded that slavery was immoral, although it took […]

Muslims dominate the natives on the streets of Norway

Gates of Vienna has an article showing just how unfathomably bad things are in Norway as a result of immigration and multiculturalism (“Everything You Have Learned in School Is Wrong“). The main story is the familiar one throughout the West: elites encourage immigration and are able to avoid the costs. As noted in Enoch Powell’s “Rivers of Blood” […]

The War on Easter

Editorial Note: This article is a slightly edited version of an article that appeared last year at Easter.  A teaching that does not come out of Nordic blood and carry Nordic spirit cannot spread itself among Nordic races. Since Christianity had become a successful religion for two thousand years only among Nordic races (not among Jews) […]

Yes, the end of the world has happened

(Translated from the French by Tom Sunic)  The end of the world has indeed happened. It did not happen on a specific day, but has spread out over several decades. The world that disappeared was a world where most children knew how to read and write. A world where we admired the heroes rather than the […]

Martin Hewson reviews Ricardo Duchesne’s “The Uniqueness of Western Civilization”

We at TOO have cheered the publication of Ricardo Duchesne’s The Uniqueness of Western Civilization as a major step forward in defending the West against the academic tide of multiculturalism. I call attention here to a very positive review by Martin Hewson, a political scientist at the University of Regina. Hewson notes that Duchesne’s work is “the most […]

Christmas Symbols And The Confederate Battle Flag: Display To Be Equally Forbidden?

Being marched into history – or Siberia   Over at Peter Brimelow has published WAR AGAINST CHRISTMAS 2012: The Eight Stages Of Christophobia. On the Facebook posting of it he summarizes This is my definitive assessment of the state of War Against Christmas in 2012. It’s basically an index of the displacement of […]

Syria and the uniqueness of the West

One of the themes at TOO is the uniqueness of the West, which basically comes down to individualism. The great achievement of the West has been the construction of civil societies where allegiance to family, kin, and religious sect are minimized. In Western societies, the personal qualities of the individual (character, intelligence, talent) rather than these […]

Where is the historical West? Part 5 of 5

Russia The West also includes areas which are seen today as partially Western. I am thinking (firstly) of Russia. There is much uncertainty about Russia’s Europeanism. Perhaps of all the cultural factors which may classify Russia as Western none is more important than the bringing of Christianity to the Slavs by Byzantium scholars in the […]

Where is the historical West? Part 4 of 5

The Hellenistic World Europe’s connectedness has created much confusion and opened the door for the imposition of a Trotskyite program claiming that Europe’s history was dictated by developments occurring elsewhere. But I wish to argue that Europe, despite its many connections, external influences, internal changes, and colonization of non-White areas, was until recently, before the […]

Where is the historical West? Part 3 of 5

The West is Difficult Western civilization is the most difficult to identify geographically for two reasons: i) the West has been the most dynamic territorially, developing across many lands, while advancing to higher stages of knowledge and power in the course of which it experienced “rises” and “declines” in different territories, ii) the West is […]

Where is the historical West? Part 2 of 5

Carleton Coon What follows is a revised paper trying to answer the same question while taking account of the prohibited criteria of race. This is not a paper on the geographical distribution of the Caucasoid race. The objective is to ascertain the historical geography of Western civilization/culture without ignoring race. The concept of race will […]

Where is the historical West? Part 1 of 5

Over a year ago I completed a 5000-word draft offering an answer to this question.  A few months later, after recurrent visits to VDare, American Renaissance, The Occidental Observer, and Counter-Currents my answer seemed naïve, adolescent; one more paper carved out under the “tyranny of liberalism” and the belief that the Western world was different […]

The High-Mindedness of the British: New Zealand and the United States

Fairness and Freedom: A History of Two Open Societies, New Zealand and the United States. David Hackett Fischer New York: Oxford University Press, xxv + 629 pages. I have to start off by saying that David Hackett Fischer’s Albion’s Seed: Four British Folkways in America has shaped the way I see American history and much […]

The Future of the European Peoples, Part 2

The following is part 2 of the translation of my speech delivered in the German language ( Die Zukunft der Völker Europa) at the NPD Summer Academy in Saarbrucken, Germany (August 23-26, 2012).  The meeting and the lectures were also attended by several representatives of the Front National from the nearby Alsace, France. The original […]

The Future of the European peoples (Part 1)

The following is a translation of my speech delivered in the German language ( Die Zukunft der Völker Europa) at the NPD Summer Academy in Saarbrucken, Germany (August 23–26, 2012).  The meeting and the lectures were also attended by several representatives of the Front National from the nearby Alsace, France. My original speech in the […]

Ricardo Duchesne’s “The Faustian impulse and European exploration”

Ricardo Duchesne has another important article on Western uniqueness: “The Faustian Impulse and European Exploration” (The Fortnightly Review, June, 2012). It is a shorter version of an article that appeared as “A Civilization of Explorers” (Academic Questions 25:65–93, 2012). TOO readers will be familiar with the general perspective, having read Alex Kurtagic’s wonderful “Ernest Shackleton’s Farthest […]

Research on Pornography and the Sexualization of Culture

Lasha Darkmoon’s current TOO article provides case studies illustrating the sexual deviance of some of the main promoters of pornography. The question here is whether the availability of pornography is bad for Whites or, indeed, for any group. Historically, explicit sexuality was a taboo in all Western societies. Growing up Catholic in the 1950s, one was […]

Snow White and the Huntsman

Snow White and the Huntsman Directed by Rupert Sanders Produced by Sam Mercer, Palak Patel, Joe Roth Screenplay by Evan Daugherty I realize that if a studio is going to spend $170 million on a movie, they are going to do their best to appeal to a wide audience. Movies with mass appeal necessarily have emotional hooks […]

The Southern Point: Rhetorically Speaking

A world is supported by four things…the learning of the wise, the justice of the great, the prayers of the righteous and the valor of the brave. But all of these are as nothing…without a ruler who knows the art of ruling. Make that the science of your tradition!                                       -Frank Herbert, Dune The Old […]

Review of Thomas Martin’s “The Victory of Humanism”

The Victory of Humanism: The Psychology of Humanist Art, Modernism, and “Race” Thomas Martin Palm Coast, FL: Backintyme, 2011; 177 pages There can be little doubt that in historical perspective, perhaps the most important upheaval in Western culture has been the decline of aristocratic culture. This is apparent, for example, in two recent books that […]

Evil Genius: Constructing Wagner as Moral Pariah, Part 2

  Part 2: Jewish Responses to Wagner’s Ideas Basically ignoring whether Wagner’s views on Jewish influence on German art and culture had any validity, a long line of Jewish music writers and intellectuals have furiously attacked the composer for having expressed them. In his essay “Know Thyself” Wagner writes of the fierce backlash that followed his […]

Evil Genius: Constructing Wagner as Moral Pariah, Part 1

PART 1 In the 2010 feature-length documentary Wagner and Me the British celebrity Stephen Fry explored his love affair with the music of Richard Wagner. Fry, who is Jewish, homosexual, and bipolar, enjoys a multi-pronged “victim” status that has made his identity politics credentials the aesthetic equivalent of a nuclear warhead. The inevitable consequence of […]

The Conservative Revolution Then and Now: Junger and the European New Right

The conservative revolutionary writers, as with some of the European New Right commentary on them, are not the easiest writers to interpret, let alone use. Their writings nevertheless provide a necessary base for any effective socio-political action. As Vladimir Lenin wrote “Without a revolutionary theory, there can be no revolutionary movement”.  Besides the type of […]

Ricardo Duchesne’s review of Niall Ferguson’s “Civilization: The West and the Rest.”

Ricardo Duchesne, whose works have been discussed here several times previously (see here, here, and here), has written a wonderfully scathing review of Niall Ferguson’s Civilization: The West and the Rest (see also Anthony Hilton’s review in TOO). Duchesne situates Ferguson squarely in the  neoconservative camp, with all the horrible things that implies: Support for big government, […]

The Southern Point: Remember the Alamo!? Part 3

William Barret Travis (“Buck”) is the revolutionary idealist of Davis’s book. The Alamoitself was his shining and penultimate moment as its doomed leader who refused to yield his position, thus dying in defense of it. As soon as the fighting began, Travis reportedly rushed out to the North wall and, leaning over the parapet, began […]

The Southern Point: Remember the Alamo!? Part 2

James Bowie is cast as an absolutely fearless, daring, and dangerous leader of men — his impulsive recklessness matched by his extraordinary ability to repeatedly overcome overwhelming odds to the astonishment of all involved. He was a man of big ideas and fortunes, and men naturally were attracted to his banner, whatever the endeavor, legal […]

Interview with Viktor Orban: “A majority of European leaders have lost their faith in what made Europe great”

Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 4th March 2012. In conversation with Viktor Orbán “There is a hidden Europe” “Nations without character and ambitions will not be able to make the European Community great”: Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán on national pride, Christianity, German greatness and Hungary in the eye of world politics Translated by Peter Stuyvesant, with […]

The Southern Point: Remember the Alamo!? Part 1

Dawn at the Alamo, Henry Arthur McArdle (1905) The corn-shuckings and square dances, the fiddles, The barrels of gin and whiskey, the jerked venison, Juicy bear meat, hot corn pone, molasses, And the girls giggling in corners — those are the things That make life merry. But there came a time When I neglected them […]

The Conservative Revolution Then and Now: Ernst Jünger

Early in 1927 the Austrian poet Hugo von Hofmannsthal made a famous address to students at the University of Munich. He alluded to and deplored the historical separation in German society between the intellectual and political sphere, between “life” and “mind”. He deplored that German writing in the past had functioned in a vacuum and […]

The Spanish Civil War: A Successful Nationalist Revolution, Part 2

The Civil War began on 18 July 1936. The Moroccan uprising had been betrayed at the last minute. The rebels therefore missed the element of surprise upon which they had been relying. The government-controlled radio reported that the rebellion was confined to Morocco and would soon be crushed. In reality, several important cities — Seville, […]

The Spanish Civil War: A Successful Nationalist Revolution, Part 1

It has been 75 years since the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War. Few conflicts in history have been as widely misunderstood, or misrepresented. The standard narrative has long been that of a military coup against a democratic government and the noble Spanish people, supported by foreign idealists, heroically fighting evil “fascists.” This is a […]

Age of the Psychopaths

The very same corporate psychopaths who caused the crisis by their greed and avarice, are now advising governments on how to get out of it.                                         Clive R. Boddy     When in my early teens, someone gave me a chessboard with pieces and someone else taught me the basic moves. After believing to have mastered […]

The Protestant Deformation of Christian Nationhood, Part 1

Introduction Contemporary Protestants try hard to be nice.  Church leaders ceaselessly call upon Christians to be “inclusive” and “compassionate” when dealing with “the Other.”  Introductory texts in theology teach that the “church is always threatened by a false unity that does not allow for the inclusion of strangers and outcasts.”  Among White Anglo-Saxon Protestants, in […]

The Balkanization of the System: Ernst Jünger and the Endtimes, Part 2

Unfortunately, many self-proclaimed White racialists think they can fight the System by violent means. Jünger’s sovereign type of a nonconformist wisely watches from his watchtower and waits for the right moment before he strikes. Perhaps one could learn some lessons from the rebels in the Vendée province during the French Revolution, or from Balkan outlaws during the Turkish occupation stretching from the […]

The Balkanization of the System: Ernst Jünger and the Endtimes, Part 1

    It seems that the prognoses about the imminent death of the West were not just a favorite topic of the German philosopher of history Oswald Spengler, the author of the much acclaimed The Decline of the West. In times of great geopolitical disruptions and social polarizations, such as those sweeping now over Europe […]

Ian Morris on Why the West Rules…For Now

Ian Morris is professor of classics and history at Stanford University. His latest book entitled Why the West Rules — For Now: The Patterns of History and What They Reveal about the Future was published in 2010. The British-born Morris attempts in his book to explain why “the West” has exercised global dominance without parallel […]

Tristan Tzara and the Jewish Roots of Dada, Part 3

Dada in New York According to Marcel Duchamp’s own account, in late 1916 or early 1917 he and Francis Picabia received a book sent by an unknown author, one Tristan Tzara. The book was called The First Adventure of Mr. Antipyrine and had just been published in Zurich. In this work Tzara declared Dada to […]

Tristan Tzara and the Jewish Roots of Dada, Part 2

Other Jews involved with Zurich Dada Among the other Jewish artists and intellectuals who joined Tzara in neutral Switzerland to escape involvement in the war was the painter and sculptor Marcel Janco (1895–1984), his brothers Jules and George, the painter and experimental film-maker Hans Richter (1888–1976), the essayist Walter Serner (1889–1942), and the painter and […]

Tristan Tzara and the Jewish Roots of Dada, Part 1

The twentieth century saw a proliferation of art inspired by the culture of critique. The exposure and promotion of this art grew alongside the ever-expanding Jewish control of the media, and Jewish penetration and eventual capture of the Western art establishment. Jewish writers, painters and composers sought to rewrite the rules of artistic expression — […]

The Lost Soul of WASP America, Part 1

Introduction The sweeping gains by the Republican Party in the 2010 mid-term Congressional elections were due in large part to the growing strength of America’s grass-roots Tea Party movement.  Tea Party activists are overwhelmingly White; their stated goal is to roll back the federal Leviathan now headed by America’s first non-White President.  Predictably, therefore, liberals […]

Fall Issue of The Occidental Quarterly, and a Call for Papers

The Fall issue of The Occidental Quarterly is now available. Yearly subscriptions (4 issues) can be obtained at the TOQ website—hardcopy: $60,00, including postage in the U.S.; online: $30.00. TOO readers will be very interested in this material. In addition to the intellectual stimulation provided by these articles (and a handsome addition to your coffee table […]

Ricardo Duchesne’s Intellectual Defense of the West

I have posted some material on Ricardo Duchesne recently (see “Progressives are Running the Universities”; “Extreme Sports as a Context for Implicit Whiteness“; “Stephen Walt on Andres Brevik, Immigration, and Western Culture”) referring to his recent book, The Uniqueness of Western Civilization. I have a review of the book posted at It is an abridged […]

Celebrating America’s European Heritage: Leif Erikson

Joseph F. Healey has pointed out that White ethnic identities are evolving into new shapes and forms, merging the various “hyphenated” ethnic identities into a single, generalized “European American” identity based on race and a common history of immigration and assimilation.  In light of the fact that virtually every minority group has generated a protest […]

Art in the Third Reich: 1933-1945 (Part 2)

The Archaic Postmodernity National Socialist dignitaries devoted much energy to the promotion of German sculptors and helped them considerably in the execution of massive bas-reliefs and in the erection of monumental stone and bronze sculptures. The political goal was obvious: to bring German art as close as possible to the German people, so that any […]

Art in the Third Reich: 1933–1945 (Part 1)

This is a slightly edited version of an article was first published in Ecrits de Paris (Nr. 645, July-August 2002, L’Art dans l’IIIème Reich. Translated by the author.) When writing about or discussing the plastic and figurative arts in Germany during the period from 1933 to 1945, one must inevitably mention the art that highlighted the epoch […]

National Suicide: Review of Pat Buchanan’s “Suicide of a Superpower”

Pat Buchanan, Suicide of a Superpower (New York: Thomas Dunne, 2011, 496pp.). Pat Buchanan takes the gloves off in his new book. During a question and answer session after his Bradley Lecture on “the State of White America,” author Charles Murray called on Sam Kazman, general counsel of the Competitive Enterprise Institute. He prefaced his […]

Extreme Sports as a Context of Implicit Whiteness

A reader sent along this video of Jeb Corliss, an extreme athlete, flying through the Alps. httpv:// Here’s extreme surfer Laird Hamilton surfing waves so big that he has to be towed into the path of the wave. httpv:// Corliss and Hamilton are White, and being White seems to be part of a pattern for extreme […]

Mark Rothko, Abstract Expressionism and the Decline of Western Art, Part 2

Creating a new “American” Art Before the rise of Abstract Expressionism, the American art scene after World War I was defined by two main currents. The first were what one might call the Regionalists (e.g. Grant Wood, Thomas Hart Benton and John Steuart Curry) who used their own signature styles to portray the virtues of […]

Mark Rothko, Abstract Expressionism and the Decline of Western Art, Part 1

The life and career of Abstract Expressionist painter Mark Rothko is a prototypical Jewish story that encapsulates a range of themes discussed at The Occidental Observer. Central to Rothko’s story is the political radicalism of eastern European Jewish migrants arriving in the United States between 1880 and 1920; the reflexive hostility of these migrants and their […]

Stephen Walt on Anders Brevick, Immigration, and Western Culture

If there’s one characteristic that defines the European nationalist parties, it is that they have eschewed racialist rhetoric in favor of cultural arguments. Geert Wilders, Marine LePen, et al. have claimed that Islam is incompatible with Western culture—that Muslims refuse to assimilate and have values that are incompatible with Western modernity, particularly on women and […]

Does the Norway Atrocity Make Nationalism Illegitimate? A Reply to Stephen Walt

My first thoughts on learning about the mass murder committed by Anders Behring Breivik in Norway on 23rd July 2011 were mixed with emotions. That such atrocity could be committed in the name of something I also believe in–the defence of the West from Third World colonization–was sickening. Should I feel shame? Perhaps. I certainly felt […]

Roger Scruton on Beauty

A reader, Alan, pointed out that I did not call attention to this passage from Scruton: There is a liturgy of denunciation here that is repeated all across Europe by a ruling elite that trembles in the face of ordinary loyalties. But the fact is that national sentiment is, for most ordinary Europeans, the only […]

Roger Scruton’s “The Rebirth of Nations”

Roger Scruton is familiar to TOO readers for his starring role in Brenton Sanderson’s wonderful series, The War on the English (see here and here). Scruton’s comments on the destruction of the English quoted by Sanderson are well worth re-reading. Scruton recently published an article in The American Spectator that summarizes some of the successes […]

Quantum Dylan: A Double Act, Part 1

Bob Dylan’s 70th anniversary was celebrated worldwide on May 24th. Hailed as the Shakespeare of his generation, Dylan has sold more than 58 million albums, and written more than 500 songs recorded by more than 2000 artists. Dylan has described himself as “a person who owns the Sixties.”  At the same time, he has spent a […]

“Whiteness” as a Theological Problem: J Kameron Carter on Race

Mainstream Christian theology today seems determined to confuse the worship of Christ with the worship of the poor, the suffering, and the marginalized.  Such confusion reflects the influence of modern Christian humanism which dissolves differences of race, class, gender, or sexual orientation into a common “humanity.”  In Theologian Daniel C. Migliore’s words (149–150), “human beings” […]

What Is and Isn’t Creative—and Not Just in Hollywood

In the comment thread following Kevin MacDonald’s recent blog post “Hollywood and the Left, Again,” one of the commenters, Caleb, wrote “It’s not just Hollywood. Creative people in all fields tend to be tolerant and politically liberal. Show me an artist who’s also a country club Republican.” In effect, several of those who replied seemed […]

Review of Civilization: The West and the Rest, by Niall Ferguson

Review of Civilization: The West and the Rest, by Niall Ferguson (2011) London: Allen Lane.  402 pages. If you’ve ever found yourself saying, as I have, that your major political preoccupation is the salvaging of the best of “Western Civilization” [WC], you may then have been queried, “What is it? What aspect of WC is […]

Helmuth Nyborg on the Genetic Decline of Western Civilization: Denmark as a Case Study

The Danish psychologist Helmuth Nyborg has an academic paper soon to be published in Personality and Individual Differences (“The decay of Western Civilization: Double Relaxed Natural Selection“). Nyborg is well-known for his work showing a sex difference in IQ favoring males, a paper which resulted in an investigation of his work and a reprimand from […]

Alain de Benoist on the West

Alain de  Benoist’s current TOO article (“The ‘West’ Should Be Forgotten“) contains this remarkable paragraph: Between the destitution of its past and the fear of its future, it believes in nothing else other than abstract moralism and disembodied principles that would save her from thriving in its being — even if the price is its […]

The “West” should be forgotten

(Translated from the French by Tom Sunic) The “West”? Raymond Abellio observed that “Europe is fixed in space, that is to say, in geography, as opposed to the West which is “portable.” In fact, the “West” has continued travelling and changing directions. In the beginning that term meant the land where the sun sets (Abendland), as […]

On the Western Tendency to Moral Universalism

I am in the rather odd position of trying to rebut comments made in the article by Richard Spencer that I posted. But it’s a good opportunity to clarify my ideas. Richard has two objections to my theory that individualism has something to do with the attraction of CPAC conservatives to the universalist rhetoric of […]

Abstractions Are a Weak Source of National Identity

Alex Kurtagic has a nice comment at on British PM David Cameron’s multiculturalism-is-a-failure speech. He notes, A strong national identity is perforce traditionalist, particularist, and inegalitarian. It is dependent on localization, specificity, and uniqueness, as this is stabilized into a tradition over many generations, what differentiates the indigenous from the alien, then native from the foreigner. […]

Romantic Commitments, Part 1

Thou art my life, my love, my heart The very eyes of me And hast command of every part To live and die for Thee. His Queen who may Command him Anything Robert Herrick (1591 – 1674) Imagine you had an Ideal! A vision of allegiance, an indissoluble covenant, and with it the profound satisfaction […]